1 Chapter 9 Muscular System: Histology and Physiology

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Transcript of 1 Chapter 9 Muscular System: Histology and Physiology

  • Slide 1
  • 1 Chapter 9 Muscular System: Histology and Physiology
  • Slide 2
  • 2 Muscular System Functions Body movement Maintenance of posture Respiration Production of body heat Communication Constriction of organs and vessels Heart beat
  • Slide 3
  • 3 Properties of Muscle Contractility Ability of a muscle to shorten with force Excitability Capacity of muscle to respond to a stimulus Extensibility Muscle can be stretched to its normal resting length and beyond to a limited degree Elasticity Ability of muscle to recoil to original resting length after stretched
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  • 4 Muscle Tissue Types Skeletal Attached to bones Nuclei multiple and peripherally located Striated, Voluntary and involuntary (reflexes) Smooth Walls of hollow organs, blood vessels, eye, glands, skin Single nucleus centrally located Not striated, involuntary, gap junctions in visceral smooth Cardiac Heart Single nucleus centrally located Striations, involuntary, intercalated disks
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  • 5 Skeletal Muscle Structure Muscle fibers or cells Develop from myoblasts Numbers remain constant Connective tissue Nerve and blood vessels
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  • 6 General Principles Tendons: Attach muscles to bones Aponeurosis: A very broad tendon Muscles Origin or head: Muscle end attached to more stationary of two bones Insertion: Muscle end attached to bone with greatest movement Belly: Largest portion of the muscle between origin and insertion Synergists: Muscles that work together to cause a movement
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  • 7 Muscle Anatomy: Anterior View
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  • 8 Muscle Anatomy: Posterior View
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  • 9 Concept Check What are the functions of the muscular system? Movement, posture, body heat, respiration, communication, constriction of blood vessels, & heart beat What are the 4 actions (properties) of muscle? Contractility, Excitability, Extensibility, & Elasticity What are the 3 types of muscle? What are their individual functions? Skeletal, Smooth, & Cardiac Voluntary Movement, Involuntary Movement, & Heart Beat Stay tuned for more Stuff!!
  • Slide 10
  • 10 Parts of a Muscle
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  • 11 Parts of a Muscle Sarcolemma- Cell Membrane of muscle fiber Sarcoplasm- cytoplasm of muscle cell Mitochondria- many nuclei Sarcomeres- contractile unit b/n z lines Contain thick & thin myofilaments Actin- (thin); 2 strands twisted together Myosin- (thick); made of protein
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  • 12 Structure of Actin and Myosin
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  • 13 Components of Sarcomeres
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  • 14 Sliding Filament Model Actin myofilaments sliding over myosin to shorten sarcomeres Actin and myosin do not change length Shortening sarcomeres responsible for skeletal muscle contraction During relaxation, sarcomeres lengthen
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  • 15 Sarcomere Shortening
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  • 16 Physiology of Skeletal Muscle Nervous system Controls muscle contractions through action potentials Resting membrane potentials Membrane voltage difference across membranes (polarized) Inside cell more negative and more K + Outside cell more positive and more Na + Must exist for action potential to occur
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  • 17 Action Potentials Phases Depolarization Inside plasma membrane becomes less negative Repolarization Return of resting membrane potential All-or-none principle Like camera flash system
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  • 18 Action Potential Propagation
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  • 19 Neuromuscular Junction Synapse or NMJ Synaptic vesicles Acetylcholine: Neurotransmitter (stimulates or inhibits the production of an action potential)
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  • 20 Action Potentials and Muscle Contraction Steps for Contraction 1.Neuron sends impulse releasing acetylcholine 2.Ca+ ions are released & actin exposes active sites 3.Myosin crossbridges attaches to actin & sarcomeres shorten 4.The muscle shortens & contracts
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  • 21 Cross-Bridge Movement
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  • 22 Muscle Twitch Muscle contraction in response to a stimulus that causes action potential in one or more muscle fibers Phases Lag or latent Contraction Relaxation
  • Slide 23
  • 23 Slow and Fast Fibers Slow-twitch or high-oxidative Contract more slowly, smaller in diameter, better blood supply, more mitochondria, more fatigue-resistant than fast-twitch Fast-twitch or low-oxidative Respond rapidly to nervous stimulation, contain myosin to break down ATP more rapidly, less blood supply, fewer and smaller mitochondria than slow-twitch Distribution of fast-twitch and slow twitch Most muscles have both but varies for each muscle Effects of exercise Hypertrophies: Increases in muscle size Atrophies: Decreases in muscle size
  • Slide 24
  • 24 Stimulus Strength and Muscle Contraction All-or-none law for muscle fibers Contraction of equal force in response to each action potential Sub-threshold stimulus Threshold stimulus Stronger than threshold Motor units Single motor neuron and all muscle fibers innervated Graded for whole muscles Strength of contractions range from weak to strong depending on stimulus strength
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  • 25 Fatigue Decreased capacity to work and reduced efficiency of performance Types Psychological Depends on emotional state of individual Muscular Results from ATP depletion Synaptic Occurs in NMJ due to lack of acetylcholine
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  • 26 Energy Sources ATP provides immediate energy for muscle contractions Anaerobic respiration Occurs in absence of oxygen and results in breakdown of glucose to yield ATP and lactic acid Aerobic respiration Requires oxygen and breaks down glucose to produce ATP, carbon dioxide and water More efficient than anaerobic
  • Slide 27
  • 27 Effects of Aging on Skeletal Muscle Reduced muscle mass Increased time for muscle to contract in response to nervous stimuli Reduced stamina Increased recovery time Loss of muscle fibers Decreased density of capillaries in muscle