1 Cell Structure & Function 2 Basic Structure of a Cell

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Transcript of 1 Cell Structure & Function 2 Basic Structure of a Cell

  • Slide 1
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  • 1 Cell Structure & Function
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  • 2 Basic Structure of a Cell
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  • 3 Anton van Leeuwenhoek In 1674, Leeuwenhoek (a Dutch microscope maker), was first to view organism (living things) Leeuwenhoek used a simple, handheld microscope to view pond water & scrapings from his teeth
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  • 4 First to View Cells In 1665, Robert Hooke used a microscope to examine a thin slice of cork (dead plant cells) What he saw looked like small boxes
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  • 5 First to View Cells Hooke is responsible for naming cells Hooke called them CELLS because they looked like the small rooms that monks lived in called Cells
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  • 6 History of Cells & the Cell Theory Virchow Cell Specialization
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  • 7 Introduction to Cells Cells are the basic units of organisms Basic types of cells: Animal CellPlant Cell Bacterial Cell
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  • 8 Number of Cells Organisms may be: Unicellular composed of one cell Multicellular- composed of many cells that may organize
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  • 9 Prokaryotes include bacteria & lack a nucleus or membrane-bound structures called organelles Eukaryotes include most other cells & have a nucleus and membrane- bound organelles (plants, fungi, & animals) Cells May be Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic
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  • 10 Prokaryotes Nucleoid region contains the DNA Cell membrane & cell wall Contain ribosomes (no membrane) to make proteins in their cytoplasm
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  • 11 Eukaryotic Cell Contain 3 basic cell structures: Nucleus Cell Membrane Cytoplasm with organelles
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  • 12 Two Main Types of Eukaryotic Cells Plant Cell Animal Cell
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  • 13 Organelles Very small size Can only be observed under a microscope Have specific functions Found throughout cytoplasm
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  • 14 Golgi Bodies Stacks of flattened sacsStacks of flattened sacs Have a shipping side & a receiving sideHave a shipping side & a receiving side Receive & modify proteins made by ERReceive & modify proteins made by ER Transport vesicles with modified proteins pinch off the endsTransport vesicles with modified proteins pinch off the ends Transport vesicle
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  • 15 Lysosome Contain digestive enzymesContain digestive enzymes Break down food and worn out cell parts for cellsBreak down food and worn out cell parts for cells Programmed for cell death (lyse & release enzymes to break down & recycle cell parts)Programmed for cell death (lyse & release enzymes to break down & recycle cell parts)
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  • 16 Nucleolus Cell may have 1 to 3 nucleoli Cell may have 1 to 3 nucleoli Inside nucleusInside nucleus Disappears when cell dividesDisappears when cell divides Makes ribosomes that make proteinsMakes ribosomes that make proteins
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  • 17 Smooth & Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth ER lacks ribosomes & makes proteins USED In the cell Rough ER has ribosomes on its surface & makes proteins to EXPORT
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  • 18 Rod shape Site of Cellular respiration Cell Powerhouse Mitochondrion ( mitochondria )
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  • 19 Active cells like muscles have more mitochondria Burn sugars to produce energy ATP In Animal Cells: Mitochondria
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  • 20 Lies immediately against the cell wall in plant cells Made of protein and phospholipids Selectively permeable Cell membrane Surrounding the Cell
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  • 21 Living layer Controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell Selectively permeable Cell membrane Cell or Plasma Membrane
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  • 22 Nonliving layer Gives structure and shape to plant and bacterial cells Cell wall Cell Wall
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  • 23 Jelly-like substance enclosed by cell membrane Provides a medium for chemical reactions to take place Cytoplasm Cytoplasm of a Cell
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  • 24 Contains organelles to carry out specific jobs Examples: chloroplast & mitochondrion Cytoplasm More on Cytoplasm
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  • 25 Controls the normal activities of the cell Contain the DNA Bounded by a nuclear membrane Contains chromosomes Control Organelle Nucleus
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  • 26 Each cell has fixed number of chromosomes that carry genes Genes control cell characteristics Nucleus More on the Nucleus
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  • 27 Contain the green pigment chlorophyll Traps sunlight to make to make sugars (food) Process called photosynthesis Plant Cell Organelles Chloroplast
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  • 28 Dead layer Large empty spaces present between cellulose fibers Freely permeable Cell wall Plant Cell
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  • 29 Plant Cell Made of cellulose which forms very thin fibers Strong and rigid Found in plant cells Cell wall
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  • 30 Protect and support the enclosed substances (protoplasm) Resist entry of excess water into the cell Give shape to the cell Cell wall Plant Cell
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  • 31 Have a large central vacuole Surrounded by tonoplast Contains cell sap Sugars, proteins, minerals, wastes, & pigments Plant Cell Organelles Vacuole
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  • 32 Different kinds of plant cells Onion Epidermal Cells Root Hair Cell root hair Guard Cells
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  • 33 mitochondrion nucleus glycogen granule cell membrane cytoplasm Animal cell No cell wall or chloroplast Stores glycogen in the cytoplasm for food energy vacuole
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  • 34 Animal Cell Organelles Near the nucleus Paired structures Help cell divide
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  • 35 Different kinds of animal cells white blood cell red blood cell cheek cells sperm nerve cell muscle cell Amoeba Paramecium
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  • 36 Similarities between plant cells and animal cells Both have a cell membrane surrounding the cytoplasm Both have a nucleus Both contain mitochondria
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  • 37 Differences between plant cells and animal cells Animal cellsPlant cells Relatively smaller in size Irregular shape No cell wall Relatively larger in size Regular shape Cell wall present
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  • 38 Animal cellsPlant cells Vacuole small or absent Glycogen as food storage Nucleus at the center Large central vacuole Starch as food storage Nucleus near cell wall Differences between Plant Cells and Animal Cells