1 Alkanes and Aromatic Hydrocarbons Organic Compounds Bonding in Hydrocarbons Naming Alkanes...

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Transcript of 1 Alkanes and Aromatic Hydrocarbons Organic Compounds Bonding in Hydrocarbons Naming Alkanes...

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1 Alkanes and Aromatic Hydrocarbons Organic Compounds Bonding in Hydrocarbons Naming Alkanes Properties of Alkanes Slide 2 2 The most important hypothesis in all of biologyis that everything that animals do, atoms do. In other words, there is nothing that living things do that cannot be understood from the point of view that they are made of atoms acting according to the laws of physics. Richard Feynman (1918-1988) Slide 3 Depicting Formulas molecular formula C 2 H 6 structural formula condensed structural formula CH 3 CH 3 3 Slide 4 Timberlake LecturePLUS4 Organic Compounds Contain carbon Have covalent bonds Have low melting points Have low boiling points Burn in air (oxygen) Are soluble in nonpolar solvents Form large molecules Slide 5 5 Alkanes Contain C and H only Contain single bonds C-C Have 4 bonds to every carbon (C) atom Are nonpolar Slide 6 6 Complete Structural Formulas Show the bonds between each of the atoms H H H C HH C H H H CH 4, methane Slide 7 7 More Alkanes H HCondensed Structural Formulas H C C HCH 3 CH 3 H HEthane H H H H C C C HCH 3 CH 2 CH 3 H H H Propane Slide 8 8 IUPAC Names Name# carbons Structural Formula Methane1CH 4 Ethane2CH 3 CH 3 Propane3CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 Butane4CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Pentane5CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 IUPAC = The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry Slide 9 9 IUPAC NAMES Name # carbons Structural Formula Hexane 6 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Heptane 7 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Octane 8 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Nonane 9 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Decane 10 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Slide 10 10 Learning Check Alk1 A. What is the condensed formula for H H H H H C C C C H H H H H B. What is its molecular formula? C. What is its name? Slide 11 11 Solution Alk1 A.CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 B. C 4 H 10 C.butane Slide 12 Timberlake LecturePLUS12 Reactions of Alkanes Combustion alkane + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + heat Slide 13 Timberlake LecturePLUS13 Combustion In the Cell Metabolic oxidation is combustion C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP + heat glucose Slide 14 Timberlake LecturePLUS14 Learning Check Alk2 Complete the combustion reaction for C 3 H 8 + O 2 + Balance your equation Slide 15 Timberlake LecturePLUS15 Solution Alk2 Step 1 C 3 H 8 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Step 2 C 3 H 8 + O 2 3 CO 2 + 4 H 2 O Step 3 C 3 H 8 + 5 O 2 3 CO 2 + 4 H 2 O Slide 16 Timberlake LecturePLUS16 Learning Check Alk3 Complete and balance the reaction for the complete combustion of C 7 H 16 Slide 17 Timberlake LecturePLUS17 Solution Alk3 Step 1 C 7 H 16 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Step 2 C 7 H 16 + O 2 7 CO 2 + 8 H 2 O Step 3 C 7 H 16 + 11 O 2 7 CO 2 + 8 H 2 O