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Transformation and Expansion of Europe

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  • 1. 7 The Transformation and Expansion of Europe

2. Overview

  • Late Middle Ages, series of disasters
    • Consequences of population increase
    • Expansion of Islam
  • Capitalism, money and credit
  • Inventions
  • Government
    • Taxes
    • Armies
  • Struggle between subjects and rulers
    • Representative assemblies
  • Contact with the Far East and renewed Muslim threat
  • Change in Western Europe

3. Crisis and Problems of the Late Middle Ages

  • The Calamitous Fourteenth Century
    • Weather
    • Population increase
    • Peasant uprising in northern France, 1320
      • Seek a Christian commonwealth
      • Put down by bands of knights
    • Jacquerie, 1358
    • Hundred Years War
    • Bubonic Plague or Black Death
      • Began in western China about 1340
      • Rats
      • Drastic economic, social, and psychological effects

4. Eastern Europe in the Late Middle Ages

  • Byzantium and Orthodoxy
    • Chaos in the Balkans
      • Schism
      • Spiritual and cultural hold of Byzantium over Orthodox people
      • National orthodox churches
      • Catholic Church regarded as an enemy
  • Eastern European States and Societies
    • Europe divided into two
      • West: stronger with more highly developed countries
      • East: weaker and less highly developed countries
    • Colonization and immigration
      • German colonists into Poland and Hungary
      • Jews fleeing eastward
    • Conflict
      • Teutonic Knights
    • Serfdom
  • Mongols, Tartars, and Russia
    • Asiatic attack
      • Ghenghis Khan, Mongols
      • Batu Khan
      • Kiev and Russia

5. The Mongol Empire 6. The Turks in Europe

  • Arrive in Europe in 1352
  • Conquest of the Bulgarians and Serbs
  • Fall of Constantinople, 1453
  • Brought unity and peace to the Balkans
  • Religious freedom
    • Non-Muslims had second-class status
    • Conversions
  • Greek upper class
    • Greek patriarchs and bishops held religious and worldly power throughout the Balkans

7. The New Economy

  • The Birth of Modern Capitalism
    • Italian merchants lead the revival of trade in the eleventh century
    • Reinvestment of surplus
    • Expansion of trading activities
    • Hanseatic League
    • Antwerp and Bruges
  • Innovations in Business Organization
    • After 1200: throw off the shackles of the guilds
    • Partnership
      • Woolens Industry
        • Putting-out, or domestic system

8. The Rise of Banking and Bankers

  • Economy geared to trade
  • Use of coins
  • Bill of Exchange
  • Banking
    • Successful merchants
      • Money lending
        • Usury
        • Jews
    • Christian banking
        • Italian merchants, Florence
        • Jacques Coeur
        • Jacob Fugger

9. The Impact on Social Structure and Values

  • The End of Serfdom in Western Europe
    • Disrupted relationship between the nobles and peasants
      • Nobles rent out their demesnes to free tenants
      • Services converted into money payment
    • Emancipation of the serfs
      • Serfdom disappeared in England by 1500
  • The Challenge to Medieval Values
    • Dislocations in society led to dislocations in ethics
      • Pride, envy, and greed now regarded as the main-springs of economic life
      • The Church succumbed to materialism
      • Emergence of the bourgeois, or middle class

10. The New Technology

  • Exposure to the technology of the Arabs and the Far East
  • Navigation
    • Charts
  • Navigation and Ship Design
    • Magnetic compass China
    • Astrolabe Arabs
    • Carrack three masted ship
  • Firearms
    • Gunpowder China
      • Fire-pots or tubes (canones)
      • Bronze cast cannons
  • Paper and woodcut printing
    • Black printing did not catch on until Johann Guttenberg developed it about 1450
    • Reduced the cost of printing allowing for the publishing cheaply of books
    • Mechanical clock

11. The New Politics

  • Government
      • Use of money
      • Levy tariffs on trade
  • New Developments in warfare
    • Past use of knights
    • New weapons equalized foot soldiers and horsemen
      • Longbow
      • Pike
      • Cannon
      • Combined forces of infantry, cavalry, and artillery
  • Nobles still the leaders in society and government

12. Absolutism in Practice: Italy

  • City-States and the Rise of Despotism
    • Italian city-state
    • Struggle between the pope and Holy Roman emperors
    • Localism
    • Struggle between rival states in north Italy
    • Three leading states Venice, Milan, Florence
    • By the end of the thirteenth century most of the cities had won self-rule from the feudal nobility and emerged as sovereign republics
    • Emergence of political strongmen, supported bankers and capitalists
    • Despots
    • Condottieri
    • Francesco Sforza, ruler of Milan in 1540
    • Florence in the hands of the Medici beginning in 1434
    • Venice
  • Despotism in Central and Southern Italy
    • Papal States
    • Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

13. Fifteenth-Century Italy 14. The Theory of Absolutism: Machiavelli

  • Need for unified absolute government
  • Despotic rule put down internal dissension in Milan and Florence
  • The Secularization of the State
    • Thomas Aquinas
      • Temporal power is invested by God in the people as a whole who delegate it to suitable persons
      • State receives its authority from God (through the people) and must exercise the