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October 20 7 ctober 2007Volume 6, Number 5 www.nsca-lift.org/per form


National Strength and Conditioning AssociationBridging the gap between science and application



OunceOfPreventionIntroductory Plyometric Training Program for GolfersJason Brumitt, MSPT, SCS, ATC, CSCS,*DParticipating in a comprehensive strength and conditioning training program may help to improve the golfers game and reduce his or her risk of injury. This article presents a basic plyometric training program that is appropriate for most golfers.


Practical Guidelines for Plyometric IntensityWilliam P Ebben, PhD, CSCS,*DThis article focuses on understand the basic types of plyometric exercises and provides some guidelines regarding the progression of plyometric exercises through increasing exercises intensity over the course of a program.


TrainingTableNutrition for Ultra Endurance Events: Fluid and Electrolytes GuidelinesPart 2 of 2


Introduction to Plyometrics: Converting Strength to PowerEd McNeely, MSThis article discuss the basics of plyometrics including how they work, safety precautions, and provides a sample beginners program.

Debra Wein, MS, RD, LDN, CSSD, NSCA-CPT,*DPart one of this article discussed the energy and macronutrient needs of ultra endurance athletes. In the conclusion of this two part series, fluid and electrolyte guidelines for ultra endurance athletes will be reviewed.



MindGamesChildlike SimplicitySuzie Tuffey Riewald, PhD, NSCA-CPT,*DTake a look at how to bring childlike simplicity back into your training and your approach to competition and see how this act can enhance your enjoyment of your sport while also improving your performance.

4 6

FitnessFrontlinesG. Gregory Haff, PhD, CSCS,*D, FNSCAThe latest news from the field on performing plyometrics in water, static stretching and vertical jump performance, plyometrics in the sand, and the affects of stretching on jump performance.

InTheGymUpper Body PlyometricsJoseph M. Warpeha, MA, CSCS,*D, NSCA-CPT,*DThis article introduces three upper body plyometric exercises that can be incorporated into the program of any person for whom upper body power and explosiveness is required.

On the Cover

Jimmy Radcliffe demonstrates to attendees at the 2004 NSCA Plyometrics and Speed Development Symposium at the NSCA World Headquarters in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

NSCAs Performance Training Journal | www.nsca-lift.org/perform

Vol. 6 No.5 | Page 2

NSCAs Performance Training Journal is a publication of the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA). Articles can be accessed online at http://www.nsca-lift.org/perform. All material in this publication is copyrighted by NSCA. Permission is granted for free redistribution of each issue or article in its entirety. Reprinted articles or articles redistributed online should be accompanied by the following credit line: This article originally appeared in NSCAs Performance Training Journal, a publication of the National Strength and Conditioning Association. For a free subscription to the journal, browse to www.nsca-lift.org/perform. Permission to reprint or redistribute altered or excerpted material will be granted on a case by case basis; all requests must be made in writing to the editorial oce.

Editorial Office1885 Bob Johnson Drive Colorado Springs, Colorado 80906 Phone: +1 719-632-6722 Editor: Keith Cinea, MA, CSCS,*D, NSCA-CPT,*D email: kcinea@nsca-lift.org Assistant Editor: David Pollitt, CSCS,*D Sponsorship Information: Richard Irwin email: rirwin@nsca-lift.org

Editorial Review PanelKyle Brown, CSCS Scott Cheatham DPT, OCS, ATC, CSCS, NSCA-CPT John M. Cissik, MS, CSCS,*D, NSCA-CPT,*D Chris A. Fertal, CSCS, ATC Michael Hartman, MS, CSCS,*D Mark S. Kovacs, MEd, CSCS Matthew Rhea, PhD, CSCS David Sandler, MS, CSCS Brian K. Schilling, PhD, CSCS, FNSCA Mark Stephenson, ATC, CSCS,*D David J. Szymanski, PhD, CSCS,*D Chad D. Touchberry, MS, CSCS Randall Walton, CSCS Joseph M. Warpeha, MA, CSCS,*D, NSCA-CPT,*D

NSCA MissionAs the worldwide authority on strength and conditioning, we support and disseminate research based knowledge and its practical application, to improve athletic performance and tness.

Talk to usShare your questions and comments. We want to hear from you. Write to Performance Training Editor, NSCA, 1885 Bob Johnson Drive, Colorado Springs, CO 80906, or send email to kcinea@nsca-lift.org.

The views stated in the NSCAs Performance Training Journal are those of the authors, and do not necessarily reect the positions of the NSCA.

NSCAs Performance Training Journal | www.nsca-lift.org/perform

Vol. 6 No. 5 | Page 3

FitnessFrontlinesDoes Performing Plyometric Exercises in Chest and Waist Deep Water Result in Improvements in Performance?

G. Gregory Haff, PhD, CSCS,*D, FNSCAtreatment groups. Based upon the data presented in this investigation it can be concluded that static stretching oers no benet when compared to a standing control when examining vertical jump performance. The authors suggested that neither protocol optimized jumping performance and suggested that athletes utilize warm-up protocols which activate the stretch-shortening cycle and were dynamic in nature as these types of warm-ups appear to optimize jumping performance.

Scientic inquiry into the ecacy of aquatic based plyometric training has recently received a lot of attention. In Static Stretching and a recent investigation the eects of a Inactivity Do Not Maximize six week aquatic plyometric training program on vertical jump performance Vertical Jump Performance was tested. Twenty-nine subjects were Several studies have suggested that the divided into three groups 1) chest deep use of static stretching does not optiaquatic plyometric group, 2) waist deep mize vertical jumping performance. Brandenburge J, Pitney WA, Luebbers aquatic plyometric group, and 3) a con- However, very few studies have exam- PE, Veera A, Czajka A. (2007). Time trol group which did no specic jump ined the eects of the time interval of course of changes in vertical-jumptraining. Each plyometric group trained the stretching intervention and the actu- ing ability after static stretching. The two days per week with a periodized al vertical jump performance. To address International Journal of Sports Physiology program where the volume of training this question researchers from Emporia and Performance, 2:170 181. ranged from 90 140 foot contacts State University examined the eects and intensity was manipulated. Both of static stretching and inactivity on Does Performing Plyometrics plyometric groups performed an iden- vertical jump performance immediately, in the Sand Improve tical training program with the only three, six, 12, and 24 minutes after the dierence being the depth of the water stretching or control intervention. Each Performance? utilized. Prior to and after the 6 weeks session began with a ve minute cycle Some strength and conditioning profesof training the subjects vertical jump ergometer warm-up and a pre treat- sionals suggest that performing plyoperformance and force-time curve char- ment vertical jump was performed. After metrics in the sand can result in greater acteristics were assessed via the use of completing the pre-treatment vertical improvements in performance without a forceplate analysis system. When the jump test the subjects performed either the impact on the skeletal muscular systhree groups were analyzed, no signi- the stretching protocol or the control tem seen in traditional plyometric envicant dierences were noted between the intervention. The stretching protocol ronments. Recently, researchers from three treatment groups when examining consisted of nine minutes of lower body the Human Performance Laboratory vertical jump displacement. Additionally, static stretching, while the control treat- at the Mapei Sport Research Center in no signicant dierences were noted ment consisted of nine minutes of stand- Italy examined the eects of four weeks between the three treatment groups for ing. After the nine minute intervention of plyometric training on grass or sand peak force and power values. Based upon period, vertical jump performance was on selected jumping and sprinting tasks. these ndings it was determined that assessed at the previously mentioned Before and after the four week intervenperforming plyometric training in an intervals. The results of this study sug- tion period 37 soccer players performed aquatic environment oers no marked gested that static stretching resulted in 10 and 20-m sprints, squat jumps, and benet to athletes. It is likely that this no eect on vertical jump performance countermovement jumps. Results of the lack of performance gain occurs because when compared to the standing control. testing revealed no signicant dierthe aquatic environment changes force Interestingly, across the 24 minute post ences between the treatment groups for characteristics associated with tradition- intervention period vertical jump per- changes in sprint times at either 10 or 20 formance decreased in response to both meters or squat jump with both groups al plyometric exercises.

Miller MG, Cheatam CC, Porter AR, Richard MD, Hennigar D, Berry DC. (2007). Chest- and waist-deep aquatic plyometric training and average force, power, and vertical-jump performance. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 1:145 155.

NSCAs Performance Training Journal | www.nsca-lift.org/perform

Vol. 6 No. 5 Page 4

FitnessFrontlinesexperiencing similar benets. Conversely, the grass group experienced signicantly greater increases in countermovement vertical jump performance when compared to the sand group. Based u