0415 Opportunities for Raising Rice Yields and Factor Productivity with the System of Rice...

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Presented by: Norman Uphoff Presented at: CREES Seminar, Washington DC

Transcript of 0415 Opportunities for Raising Rice Yields and Factor Productivity with the System of Rice...

  • 1. Opportunities for Raising Rice Yields and Factor Productivity with theSystem of Rice Intensification (SRI)from Madagascar Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD CREES Seminar, Washington October 30, 2004

2. SRI is controversial in some circles

  • But it is not aniche innovation as stated by Dobermann inAgricultural Systems(2004); nor is itvoodoo science as suggested by Cassman and Sinclair,ACSSA(2004)
  • Sheehy et al. maintain inField Crops Research(2004) that:
  • [SRI] has no major role in improving rice production generally-- but this is an untenable conclusion, unsupported by any systematic evidence, and withmuch evidence that contradicts it, esp. from China
  • Sinclair (USDA) wrote:Discussion of SRI is unfortunate becauseit implies SRI merits serious consideration. SRI does not deserve such consideration. Rice Today (2004)
  • However, SRI is makinglarge differencesin yields and in factor productivity in many countries spreading rapidly
  • We want it to be scientifically evaluated preferably with farmers [usually better resultson-farmthanon-station ]

3. SRI Message: For Centuries, Even Millennia, We Have Been ABUSING and MISTREATING the Rice Plant

  • We have FLOODED it drowning its roots
  • We have CROWDED it inhibiting thegrowth potentialof its canopy and roots
  • Now we apply FERTILIZERS and chemical BIOCIDES that adversely affectsoil biotawhich provide many services to plants:N fixation, P solubilization, protection against diseases and abiotic stresses, etc.

4. SRI Results are Remarkable, but Have Been Replicated Widely

  • Yieldincreases 50-100% or more, with
  • No change invarieties all give increase, and no need for mineralfertilizers they are beneficial; compost gives better yield
  • Little or no need foragrochemicals-- SRI plants more resistant to pests/diseases
  • Reducedseed requirement by 80-90% and lesswater requirement by 25-50%
  • More laboris required initially, but SRI can even becomelabor-saving over time

5. SRI rice field, hybrid variety, Yunnan province, 2004 18 t/ha 6. Cambodian farmer with rice plant grown from single seed, using SRI methods and traditional variety 7. Madagascar SRI field -- 2003 8. SRI field in Cuba--2003 CFA Camilo Cienfuegos 14 t/ha Los Palacios 9 9. SRI field in Sri Lanka with many panicles having 400+ grains 10. The System of Rice Intensification

  • Evolved in Madagascar over 20 years byFr. Henri de Laulani, S.J. working with farmers, observing, doing experiments, also having some luck in 1983-84 season
  • SRI is now spreading around the world: positive results now seen in 21 countries
  • SRI is a set ofprinciples and insightsthat when translated into certainpracticescanchange the growing environment of riceto get healthier, more productive plantsrepresentingdifferent phenotypes

11. Fr. de Laulani making field visit 12. Sebastien Rafaralahy and Justin Rabenandrasana, Association Tefy Saina 13. SRI is a set of principles and methods to get more productive PHENOTYPES fromany GENOTYPE SRIchanges the managementofplants, soil, water, and nutrientsto: (a) induce greater ROOT growth and (b) nurturemore abundant and diversepopulations of SOIL BIOTA Capitalize on existing rice potentials 14. Canopy of an individual rice plant grown under SRI conditions; usually this variety (Swarna) is shy-tillering Andhra Pradesh, India, rabi season, 2003-04 15. Roots of a single rice plant (MTU 1071)grown at Agricultural Research Station Maruteru, AP, India, kharif 2003 16. Different P aradigmsof Production

  • The GREEN REVOLUTIONparadigm:
  • (a) Changed thegenetic potentialof plants, and
  • (b) Increased the use ofexternal inputs-- more water, fertilizer, insecticides, etc.
  • SRI changes certainmanagement practices for plants, soil, water and nutrients, so as to:
  • (A) Promotethe growth of root systems , and
  • (B) Increase theabundance and diversityof
  • soil organisms ,and also
  • (C) Reducewater use and costs of production

17. 21st Century Agriculture Should Be

  • MorePRODUCTIVEAGRONOMICALLY :
    • LAND -- per unitarea-- per ha or per acre
    • LABOR -- perhouror perday
    • WATER -- percubic meteror peracre/ft
    • CAPITAL -- more profitable for$ invested
  • MoreENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN
    • More robust in face of CLIMATE CHANGE
  • MoreSOCIALLY BENEFICIAL
    • ACCESSIBLE to the poor, reducing poverty
    • Providing greater FOOD SECURITY
    • Contributing more to HUMAN HEALTH

18. 19. Changes in Fertilizer Use World Grain Production (mmt) Fertilizer Use (mmt) Marginal Response Ratio Decade Decade 1950 631 14 -- 1961 805 (+174) 31 (+17) 10.2:1 1969-71 1116(+311) 68(+37) 8.4:1 1979-81 1442(+326) 116(+48) 6.8:1 1989-91 1732(+290) 140(+24) 12.1:1 1999-01 1885(+153) 138(-2) ? 20. Modern agriculture is not necessarily theultimateform of agriculture

  • Productivity gainsachieved with heavy use of external inputs areslowing down
  • Negative side-effectsare becomingmore evident -- environmental, social costs
  • Can we makefurther progressin the 21st century by doing more of the same ?
  • Doubtfulbecause ofdiminishing returns-- in case of rice (K. Cassman et al., 1998) --a further60% increase in rice productionwe will require300% increase in N fertilizer

21. Previous Productivity GainsWere Made in Large Part withUse of CHEMICAL INPUTS

  • F ertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, etc. are now
  • -- givingdiminishing returnswhile-- creatingenvironmental hazards andhealth risks ,
    • with risingcosts of productionand
  • -- continuing problems ofefficacy

22. How to Reduce Chemical Dependence and Energy Dependence in Agriculture?

  • Capitalize maximally/optimally onbiological processes and potentials
  • Pay more attention to phenotypes they are what we eat, not genotypes
  • Phenotypesare product of G x E interaction SRI changes the E
  • May be relevant for other crops also

23. Plant Physical Structure andLight Intensity Distributionat Heading Stage (Tao et al., CNRRI, 2002) 24. Dry Matter Accumulation between SRI and Control (CK) Practices(kg/ha) at Maturity (Zheng et al., SAAS, 2003) 25. Table 2. Different sizes of the leaf blade (cm) with SRI practices (Zheng et al., SAAS, 2003) Prac-tice 3 rdleaf 2 ndleaf Flag leaf Average Length Width Length Width Length Width Length Width SRI 64.25 1.57 71.32 1.87 57.67 2.17 64.41 1.87 CK 56.07 1.43 62.03 1.57 48.67 2.01 55.56 1.67 +/- 8.18 0.14 9.29 0.30 9.00 0.16 8.86 0.20 % 14.59 9.79 14.97 19.11 18.49 7.96 15.95 11.98 26. Figure 1. Change of leaf area index (LAI) during growth cycle (Zheng et al., 2003) 27. Root Oxygenation Ability with SRIvs. Conventionally-Grown Rice Research done at Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxianggeng 9 variety (Wang et al. 2002) 28. Much Remains to be Known about the Mechanisms

  • Multiple hypothesescan be formulated from the existing scientific literature
  • Relatively littlesoil researchhas focused onsoil biology
  • Relatively littleplant researchhas focused onplant roots
  • One example is the apparent effect ofphytohormonesproduced by aerobic bacteria and fungi (e.g., auxins, cytokinins)

29. Cuba 52 DAP, Variety VN 2084 30. Greatest Benefit Is NotYIELD

  • This can vary, often widely; for farmers,profitabilityis more important outcome
  • From societys perspective, what is most important isfactor productivity kg of rice perland, labor, capital, and water!
  • No question any longer ofwhetherSRI methods give higher yields/productivity but ratherhow to explainthese changes
  • SRI can surely befurther improvedsince it has been developed inductively so far

31. What Are the Negatives?

  • Surprisingly few -- the main constraint islabor intensity--at least initially
  • This is receding as a constraint , mostlya problem for first few weeks or seasons
    • Cambodian evaluation showedno increase(305 vs. 302 hrs/ha) -- and better timing; in China and India, it is becominglabor saving
    • IWMI study showedlabor productivityhigher by 50-62%, withpartial useof SRI methods
    • Farmer innovationis helping to reduce labor requirements -- more innovations will come

32. Roller-marker devised by Lakshmana Reddy, East Godavari, AP, India, to save time in transplanting operations; his yield in 2003-04 rabi season was 16.2 t/ha paddy (dry weight) 33. 4-row weeder designed by Gopal Swaminathan, Thanjavur, TN, India AERATE SOIL at same time weeds are removed/incorporated 34. Motorized weeder developed by S. Ariyaratna Sri Lanka 35. Seeder Developed in Cuba Direct seeding will probably replace transplanting in future Essential principle is toavoid trauma to the young roots 36. What Are Other Negatives?

  • Water cont