03 Cartilage And Bone Connective Tissue
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2. Bones support and protect vital organs of the body and is dynamic (constantly changing) 3. Bones provide anchoring attachments for the skeletal muscles. These muscles then move the bones to allow body movement. 4. Osteologyis the study of bones. 5. Orthopedicsdeals with traumatic musculoskeletal injuries (not just broken bones). The name comes from its historyit was established as a means of correcting deformities in children. 6. 7. Sesamoid bone 8. Sesamoid bones 9. Patellais a sesamoid bone that develops over time 10. Locations wherecartilageis found 11. 12. Cartilagehelps support structures in the respiratory tract. 13. Cartilageprovides a gliding surface at articulations (joints) were two bones meet. 14. Cartilagecan serve as model for later bone development. 15. 16. Hyaline cartilagecontributes to the structures of the respiratory tract, fetal skeleton, growth plates, and joints. 17. Close-up view offibrocartilage 18. Elastic cartilage 19. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWINGIS CORRECTABOUT CARTILAGE? A IS USED TO MAKE FINGERNAILS B IS FOUND IN THE PERITONEAL CAVITY C IS FOUND IN THE MEDIASTINUM D IS FOUND IN THE DORSAL BODY CAVITY E ALL OF THE ABOVE 20. Each bone is an organbecause it contains numerous types of tissue, including vascular, nervous, connective, muscular, cartilage, and osseous. 21. Bones allow movement by acting as levers 22. Hematopoiesis(hemopoiesis) occurs within the active (red) marrow of the adult sternum, vertebrae, pelvis (ossa coxae), and proximal ends of bones of thigh and upper arm. 23. 24. Hematopoiesisin an adult occurs in the red marrow of the skull, sternum, vertebrae, pelvis (ossa coxae), and proximal epiphyses of the thigh bones and upper arm bones. 25. 26. 27. I amnota big fan ofsternal bone marrow biopsies . 28. Posterior portion of the ilium is better 29. Method of bone marrow biopsyutilizing the posterior pelvis (ossa coxae) 30. 31. 32. Bones are mineral storage depositsfor calcium, phosphate, magnesium, and sodium salts. Withdrawals and deposits are constant. 33.
- 90-95% of your calcium and phosphorous stored in bones, as well as magnesium and sodium salts
- Minerals give bone its strength
- Minerals are needed for blood clotting, muscle contraction, ATP synthesis, etc.
34. Yellow marrowis inactive and is found in the central shaft.Red marrowis active and is found in the spongy bone at the proximal ends of long bones of arm and thigh, etc. 35. Osso bucco anyone? 36. Bones vary in shape and size 37. Shapes of Bones 38. The central shaft of a long bone is called thediaphysis The ends of a long bone are called theepiphyses 39. 40. Each epiphysis is covered with smooth, slipperyhyaline cartilage . Notenutrient foramenthat allows passage of blood vessels to keep bone alive. 41. 42. 43. Pulling stress on theperiosteumcauses and increase in bonewidth. 44. Theepiphyseal growth plateallows long bones to increase inlength . 45. Hyaline cartilage 46. Human growth hormone,produced by the anterior portion of the pituitary, stimulates the mitotic activity of the epiphyseal growth plate. 47. Fracture through epiphyseal growth plate .This can lead to premature ossification 48. Eventually the epiphyseal growth plate ossifiesand is replaced with anepiphyseal line 49. Osteoblastssecrete osteoid, which later becomes bone 50. Osteoclastsbreak down bone 51. Osteoclastin action breaking down bone osteocytes 52. Structurally unstable bones of the skull. Read aboutPaget diseaseof bone (osteitis deformans) in theclinical viewin the text. 53. Ilizarov apparatus 54. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWINGIS FALSEABOUT LONG BONES? A THEY ARE FOUND IN THE CRURAL REGION B THE DIAPHYSIS IS SURROUNDED BY THEEPIPHYSES C THEY MAY BE ELONGATED WITH ANILLIZAROV DEVICE D THEY ARE DERIVED FROM A CARTILAGEMODEL E THEY ARE INVOLVED IN HEMOPOIESIS ININFANTS, BUT NOT IN ADULTS 55. Cross-section through long bone showing medullary cavity Bone consists oforganic components(cells, collagen fibers, and ground substance) andinorganic components(calcium compounds, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, sulfate, and fluoride). 56. Bone can be organized as eitherspongy(cancellous) bone or ascompact(dense) bone. Compact bone Spongy bone 57. The spongy bone found between the layers of compact bone in the skull is calleddiplo 58. If only the outer compact bone is broken, the inner layer of compact bone will still protect the brain. 59. Intramembranous ossification(shown in gold) leads to formation of flat bones of skull, zygomatic (cheek) bone, maxilla (upper jaw), mandible (lower jaw),collar bone (clavicle), and sesamoid bones. 60. Most bones develop byendochondral ossification (red areas).The gray areas show bones developing by intramembranous ossification. 61. x Start of endochondral ossification 62. Continuation of endochondral ossification 63. A growing child 64. A growing adolescent 65. An adult 66. Finger bones of a juvenile bat 67. Finger bones of an adult bat 68. Read about forensic anthropology in theclinical viewin your text 69. Read aboutachondroplastic dwarfismin theclinical viewin your text. 70. Pulling stress on the periosteum stimulates osteoblasts which causes bones to increase inwidth. 71. Remains of victims of Pompeii after overlying ash is removed 72. How could anthropologists distinguish Roman soldiers based solely on their arm bones? 73. Osteoclasts dissolve bone tissue adjacent to the medullary cavity so this cavity maintains anappropriate sizefor the increase in bone growth 74. Dental bracescan cause remodeling of the surrounding bone by increasing the activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. 75. 76. Traction (Ilizarov method is shown)can also stimulate osteoblasts to fill in gaps in long bones. 77. Blood vesselsbring oxygen and nutrients to the metabolically-active bone cells.Nervesalso enter the bone and can signal injuries to the bone. 78. Hormonesproduced by several glands can directly, or indirectly, influence bone growth. 79. Vitamin Astimulates osteoblasts,Vitamin Cis needed to synthesize collagen, andVitamin Daides in the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate. 80. Read aboutricketsin theclinical viewin your text. 81. Paralyzed persons, such as Christopher Reeve, sufferloss of bone mass and weakened bonesbecause of lack of pulling stress on the periosteum. 82. Astronauts suffer loss of bone mass and weakened bonesbecause lack of pulling stress on the periosteum. 83. NASA just sent up a $5 million treadmill named the COLBERT (after the comedian Stephen Colbert) 84. 85. 86. Bears show very little bone loss during hibernationif we could figure out how they do that it could really help astronauts and also bedridden patients. 87. Read about howbone scanscan reveal the health of bones in theclinical viewin your text. 88. Afractureis a cracking of the bone.This is a view of a broken bone as viewed in an X-ray image. 89. The discoverer of X-rays. 90. X-raysare used by radiologists to diagnose bone fractures andmanyother problems inside the body. 91. 92. 93. Mostbone fractures are the result of traumatic injury 94. Closed fracture of the tibiaafter fall on trampoline 95. Open fracture of the femur .Open fractures of the femur, or even closed fractures of the femur, can be associated with life-threatening blood loss. 96. 97. 98. Greenstick fracturesare almost exclusively limited to children since their bones are not completely ossified. 99. Greenstick fracture of the fibula.Note also the epiphyseal growth plates. 100. Depressed skull fracture 101. Displaced fractureof the head of the humerus 102. Nondisplaced spiral fracture of the tibia .Note also the epiphyseal growth plates.This child jumped off the kitchen counter while spinning and then planted her foot on the linoleum floor. 103. Fractures heal best when the bones are returned to proper anatomical position and thenimmobilizedin place. 104. Immobilization may involve plates and screws in addition to a cast. 105.
- If you have a cast, be sure it matches your style!
106. Sequence of events in healing following a bone fracture 107. Distinctive bone markings or surface features 108. Surface features of bone 109. Surface features of bone 110. Crest 111. Epicondyle Condyle 112. Process 113. Spine 114. Tubercle & Tuberosity 115. Trochanter 116. 117. Surface features of bone 118. Agingcauses bones to become more brittle and they tend to demineralize resulting in insufficient ossification (osteopenia).Aging causes all persons to become slightly osteopenic. 119. Read aboutosteoporosisin theclinical viewin your text 120. Next section: the Skull