02. serious games?

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  • 1. INTRODUKTION TIL SERIOUS GAMES v. Rikke Toft Nrgrd, Adjunkt, Ph.d., CUDiMEnkeltfag 2: Serious Games Fysisk seminar 2: fredag d. 7. marts, Klokken 10.30-11.30

2. Serious Games? Traditional games for serious purposes (COTS) Catgorizing educational computer games The rationale behind edutainment The instructional approach to edutainment The modern apporach to the educational use of computer games The educational effectiveness of video games Political games and newsgames Advertainment Gamification: Plugn play games for real? Games-for-change: Revolutionaries rise 3. Serious Games? The value of it all? Hvad fr spillere ud af at spille? Hvad fr afsenderen ud af at bruge spil? Kan spilleren pvirkes? Kan spilleren indlres eller lre? Kan spil gre verden til et bedre/vrre sted? ...i teorien kan ethvert spil vre serist spil= en mde at analysere, anvende, anskue, afsende p 4. Traditional games for serious purposes The effectiveness of traditional games [COTS] reliesheavily on exactly how they are used in a teaching environment Debriefing the process of reflection after the game hasfinished is especially important. Researchers have found that students can make incorrectassumptions based on their game experiences. Therefore debriefing is key, as the teacher needs to taketime to correct any mistakes, clarify misconceptions, and expand on the game experience 5. Traditional games for serious purposes => Lring Debriefing som nsten altid fravrende nr vi skriver ogtnker over spil og lring 6. Categorizing educational computer games Edutainment: Mathblaster / apps / Pixeline COTS: SimCity, Civilization, Portal Research-based educationale video games: Oregon Trail,Global Conflicts: Palestine Andre typer/former? => Lring 7. The rationale behind edutainment Behavorist framework: The law of exercise says that repetition is crucial to learning something (basic skills) The law of effect states that we can strengthen a response by providing rewards = at f information fra spillet printet ind i hjernen MEN: It is important that you will actually need educationalrelevant knowledge, skills or attitudes to succeed in the game Children are unlikely to be attracted to discount games (!) 8. The rationale behind edutainment Edutainment bygger p behavorisme Spil som belnning for lring (noget med pyramider + backgammon)=> Ydre motivation (tilfldig belnning) Ikke-integreret (spiloplevelse >< lringsoplevelse): ser ikke lringen men kun regelsystemet (gaming the system) Drill-and-practice (udenadslre >< opdagelse, udforskning, problemlsning, erfaringsbaseret lring) Simpelt & kedeligt gameplay >< innovativt & komplekst gameplay Ingen underviser-tilstedevrelse / debriefing (transfer) 9. The rationale behind edutainment Malone & Lepper (indre motivation & spil & lring) Fantasi: worldbuilding >< abstrakt (find det manglende bogstav i ordet) Kontrol: hvor meget kan du vlge at gre med hvor mange ting (substantiver & verber) >< kun 1 ting at gre (bogstav i ord) Udfordring: Flow >< for let/svrt Nysgerrighed: en kompleks verden at udforske >< 1 skrmbillede => Lring 10. The Modern approach to the educational use of computer games Konstruktivisme: Spilleren har frihed til at udforske Selv at konstruere sin viden p en meningsfuld mde ud fra spilverdenen bne spilsystemer, mikroverdener, byg sin egen verden 11. The Modern approach to the educational use of computer games Here, the content of a video game is less significant thanits way of initiating new explorations and journeys to knowledge. James Paul Gee: Semiotiske domner hvis betydning udforskes (mentale skemaer) Lring & identitet: at lre gennem at gre og identificere sig meddenne gren Situeret mening og lring: lring forgr inden for det semiotiske domne At fortlle og gre: spilsystemet fortller spilleren hvordan han/hun klarer sig (feedback) og lrer spilleren at gre i verden gennem at gre i spillet (transfer) Kulturelle modeller: en spilverden reprsenterer et perspektiv p verden der udtrykker normer og vrdier 12. Learning versus playing Playing = learning = playing Man lrer det man spiller (med mindre debriefing) Interaktion >< refleksion Spiloplevelse >< lringsoplevelse Drill&practice (physics; http://www.learningcircuits.co.uk)>< microworlds (physics; Portal) 13. The educational effectiveness of video games Tiltro til egne evner (self-efficacy): + 20% Gengivelse af viden (declarative knowledge): + 11% Brug af viden (procedural knowledge): + 14% Fastholdelse af viden (retention): + 9% Overfrsel af viden (transfer): + 5% General cognitive skills: Hnd-je koordination Rumlig forstelse/evner Problemlsning => Lring 14. Political games and newsgames At f folk til at forholde sig til nyheder/politik gennem atspille computerspil persuasive games (Americas Army) Spil med en holdning (Bogost & Frasca) Spil der stter en politisk dagsorden (sep. 12th) At f unge til at interessere sig for politik/samfundetgennem at spille spil => Branding & markedsfring 15. Advertainment Advertising Entertainment Reklamespil: LEGO / Nike / Disney / Coca-Cola At tiltrkke besgende til hjemmesider Product placement i store spiltitler: Bilspil Sportsspil Tom Clancys Splinter Celle => Branding & markedsfring 16. Gamification At tage spilmekanismerne ud af spillet og ind i verden At spille X Spilprincipper: belnninger, XP, level up, flow,udfordringer, quests, skill trees etc. => pvirker spillerens adfrd, viden, holdning At kvantificere, spore og belnne adfrd => f folk til athandle / tnke / fle p mder de ellers ikke ville (motiverende design) The Fun Theory:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SByymar3bds 17. Gamification Instrumentel tilgang til adfrd (brn & lommepenge) Behaviorisme 2.0: It delivers the how of behavioralchange through gaming, without worrying too much about the why. The idealist approach, on the other hand, stresses that the gamified activity should not only show how to get people to do things, but also provide a deeper, more meaningful activity that answers the question, why do it? (Deterding) => Gamification 18. Games-for-change Reality is Broken (Jane McGonigal) At bruge spilteknologi og spilmekanikker til at gre verdentil at bedre sted The games-for-change movement (at skabe fred, at stoppe oversvmmelser, at redde regnskoven) Alternative reality games (ARG) (at f bygget et vandvrk i afrika, at f bygget et bibliotek i Londons arbejderkvarter) 19. Afslutning S hvad vil I skrive om? Spil, branding & markedsfring Gamification Spil & psykologi (farligt spil) Spil & lring Spil & leg Spil & games-for-change Hvordan adskiller serious games sig fra almindeligecomputerspil? Hvilke udfordringer/problemer er der ved at bruge spil til andre forml end underholdning? Hvilke muligheder/potentialer er der ved at bruge spil til andre forml end underholdning