02 Network Basic Knowledge and Microwave Equipment IP Address Planning

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  • Network Basic Knowledge and Microwave Equipment IP Address PlanningMicrowave Product Customer Service Dept.2009-1

  • Contents

  • Network Protocol

    OSI OriginInternational Standardization OrganizationISO, founded the special organization to research the issue of different system hierarchy networks interconnection, in 1977. Soon, they bring the standard frame, which can interconnect the various computers all around the word. This is the famous Open Systems Interconnection/Reference Model, OSI/RM, OSI in brief.

    OSI HierarchyApplication software, such as: telnet, ftp etc. Information format conversion, guarantee the reliability.Offer value-added services: half duplex, error correct, transmission control.Screen subnet differences, offer message transport between hosts to upper layer.Use below layers, offer messages packet transfer between nodes to upper layer.Include LLC and MAC, offer no error frame message transport to upper layer.Refer communication media, offer correct bit message transport to upper layer.Resource SubnetCommunication subnetApplicationPresentationSessionNetworkData LinkTransport

    TCP/IP EvolutionTCP/IP was developed in 1970s, and it is the first internet protocolTCP/IP :the interconnection is the biggest source of internet safety problem .TCP/IP is a group of protocols, including various protocols.

    TCP/IP HierarchyApplication software such as Ftp, email, Telnet and etc.The communication between application software onsource host and destination host.Key partsend out packet to any net out-of-order.Make up frames, transmission on the net.ApplicationTransportInternetNet interface

    Compare Between OSI And TCP/IP

    ReviewWhat are the network protocols used mostly? Describe the hierarchy of the OSI Protocol.Describe the hierarchy of the TCP/IP Protocol.Compare between the OSI and TCP/IP Protocols.

  • IP Address Planning

    IP Definition, Format and HierarchyDefinition. An IP address is used to identify a communication unity in the net, such as one host or one port of the router.Format. IP address use 32 bits, in binary format, for easy to remember denotation in decimal separate by dot, such as: An IP address consists of two parts: one identifies the network that this IP belongs to, the other identifies the host on the net.

    IP DistributionWhen use the TCP/IP protocol, set the IP address first. Different hosts use different IP addresses. One host can have several IP addresses (multi net cards, multi address). An IP address is consist of two parts: network identification, host identification.1100000010101000000000000000010111000000.10101000.00000000.00000101192.168.0.5 www.sina.comSuch as:

    IP Elements Effects

  • IP Classification



    Class A

    Class B

    Class C

    SummaryClass A:Class B:Class C:

    Symbol bit: 1bitNet symbol: 7 bitsHost symbol: 24 bits011262242 hosts

    Symbol bit: 2 bitsNet symbol: 14 bitsHost symbol: 16 bits101281912162

    Symbol bit: 3 bitsNet symbol: 21 bitsHost symbol: 8 bits110192223282254

  • Partition Subnet

    Cause1Network131.108.0.0Internet Because of the great quantities in Class A, B, C, to manage the network and decrease the network flow, divide the hosts into small networks.


    Method1Subnet maskUse 32-bit binary number to logical multiply the former IP address to divide subnets.Address hierarchyThe subnet IP Address consists of three parts: net identification, subnet identification, host identification. ConditionsHost and subnet address shall not be all 0 or 1.



    Process1Convert the quantity of subnets needed to the format 2m.Use m bits in the host bits according to the m in last step. Convert the host bits into decimal number. 1Now we need 8 subnets, so 8=23. If the number is not power of 2, choose the larger number. For example, 6 subnets are needed, we shall also consider 23.Example:2If m is 3, then 3 bits of host bits are used by network identification. Example:

    Process2The network identification is, now divide into four subnets :Example:

    Example1There is a Class C segment Now we want to divide the segment into five subnets, how to set the subnet mask and what is the range of IP address for each subnet?

    Example21. Class C hosts address is X.X.X.12542. Take three bits from the host identification as the subnet identification;3. Calculate the subnet mask:, for(11100000)2(224)10;4. Calculate the range of each subnet.

    Private Address

    Variable Length Subnet Mask VLSMVLSM is one multi-level subnet partition technique.

    Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR)CIDR can be used to gather the IP Addresses, decrease the size of the router table, enhance the network expansibility.

    Routing SortThere are two classical router selection modes:Static routing: set the fix router table in the router. Dynamic routing: communication among the routers in the network, transport the router message, then update the router table.Interior Gateway ProtocolIGPRIP,OSPF Exterior Gateway ProtocolEGPBGP,BGP-4

    Review1What are the parts of an IP Address?

  • Examples

  • NEC NEO/c Equipment Net Configure Instance

    NEC NEO/c Equipment Net Configure Instance 1

    NEC NEO/c Equipment Net Configure Instance 2

    NEC NEO/c Equipment Net Configure Instance 3

  • ZXMW PR10 Equipment IP Configuration

    IP Planning RulesAll IP addresses including the IP of the Q port and the Radio port of all equipments in the same station, should be in the same subnet. The IP addresses of different stations must be in different subnets.

    IP Planning Instance

    Date :

    Reviewed by :

    Dynamic Routing Configuration OSPFIf all equipments in the network are PR10, open the OSPF protocol of the ZXMW PR10 equipments. Every equipment in this net can address other equipments.

    Static Routing ConfigurationIF the equipment connecting to ZXMW PR10 doesnt support OSPF protocol, we need to setup static routing for ZXMW PR10.NE1 static routing.

    Default Gateway ConfigurationSetting the default Gateway when setting the static routing can reduce the routing items .NE1 static routing (with default Gateway).

    SNMP ConfigurationSuppose the ZXMW-EMS network management server is Click [SecuritySNMP Manager] in the ZXMW PR10 WEB CIT. Setup SNMP on in this interface. Set IP address to and enable it. Get Community password: publicSet Community password: private

    TRAP ConfigurationClick [SecurityTrap Destinations] in the ZXMW PR10 WEB CIT. Setup Trap on in this interface. Set IP address to and enable it. Trap Community password: public

    ZXMW SR10 Network Management ModelSR10 equipments apply In-band management modela special algorithm based on subnet routing. It divides the whole network into different subnets, and every subnet is managed by a Gateway Network Element, which is the interface outward and response all ARP applications to the equipments in this subnet.

  • ZXMW PR10 and ZXMW SR10 Interconnection

    ZXMW PR10 and ZXMW SR10 Network Diagram









    IP Configuration RuleSet the NE (network element) connecting to the external network as the Gateway NE. In this example, set NE2 as the Gateway NE. IP addresses of ZXMW PR10 equipments and NMS, namely IP addresses of the external network of ZXMW SR10 equipments must not be in the subnet managed by ZXMW SR10 Gateway NE. In this example, the subnet managed by Gateway NENE2 is All the IP addresses of PR10 equipments and NMS are not in this subnet.The default gateway of SR10 Gateway NE must be set to the IP address of the external equipment the Gateway NE connecting to. In this example, we set the default gateway of NE2 to the IP address of NE3:



    Management NetworkSR10PR10


    IP ConfigurationAgent/Ethernet IP Address10.61.123.510.61.123.610.

    Agent/Ethernet IP Mask255.255.255.252255.255.255.252255.255.255.0255.255.255.0255.255.255.0255.255.255.0255.255.255.0255.255.255.0

    Serial IP Address192.168.0.1192.168.0.1

    Serial IP Mask255.255.255.0255.255.255.0

    Default Router IP Address0.

    Radio IP Address10.61.123.101172.16.129.101

    Radio IP Mask255.255.255.0255.255.255.0

    In-band ConfigurationIn-Band Management EnabledEnabledEnabled

    Right DrawerRight Radio EnabledEnabledEnabled

    Right Radio ChannelDCCrDCCr

    Right Line checkedDisabledDisabled

    Right Line ChannelN/AN/A

    Left DrawerLeft Radio checkedDisabledDisabled

    Left Radio ChannelN/AN/A

    Left Line checkedDisabledDisabled

    Left Line ChannelN/AN/A

    Ethernet PortEthernet Port checkedEnabledEnabled

    Ethernet Port ChannelPPPoEPPPoE

    ConfigurationElement TypeNetwork ElementGateway

    Gateway Ring Subnet AddressN/A10.61.123.0

    Gateway Ring Subnet MaskN/A255.255.255.240

    Time To Live (TTL)6464

    Network ID11



    Routing ConfigurationBecause of the simple topology in this example, If the topology is complex, we need to setup the static routing of the PR10 equipments, which direct to ZXMW SR10 Network (the method is the same with interconnecting Harris equipments). ZXMW SR10 equipments dont need additional routing configuration.

  • Ethiopia GSM Secondary Upgrade Project

    Project AnalysisThere are 7 districts in Ethiopia GSM secondary upgrade project national network (six districts and the capital district).The range of network appointed by the customer is, two Class B networks. is available, and network is preserved for future capacity expansion.

    Subnet Partition 1Because Ethiopia has 6 districts and 1 capital district, we need to take 3 bits as subnet identification. Divide the appointed segment into 8 /19 segments: 0/1910.234.192.0/1910.234.224.0/19Appoint the 7 segments for the 7 districts including 6 districts and 1 capital district, the last one is reserved.

    Subnet Partition 2For each district, look up for the optical node which hang the most the hops, then divide the segments in Step 1 according to the maximum equipments quantity and the total hops quantity of this optical node.For each optical node, divide the segments in Step 2 into subnets. The method is the same with Step 2.

    1974 IBMSNAsystem network architecture2070Xerox2.94Mbps ISOOSIOSI/RMOSI/RMIEEE802Csma/cd?IEEE802.3 IEEE=Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers []