Введение в ZBrush(rus)

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1. , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 ZBrush (anti-aliasing) 3-

8 9 9 10 11 13 15 15 15 16 16 17 18 18 20 21 21

2. ZBrush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 ZBrush ZBrush ZBrush

Alpha () Brush () Color () Document () Draw () Edit () Layer () Light () Macro () Marker () Material () Movie ()

24 24 26 31 34 37 39 39 40 40 41 42 42 43 44 44 45 45

Picker () Preferences () Render () Stencil () Stroke () Texture () Tool ( ) Transform () Zoom () ZPlugin ZScript Title ( )

46 47 47 48 49 50 51 57 58 59 59 59

3. . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

3- ZCut

61 61 63 64 66 67 69 70 70 70 72 73 74 75 77

4. . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Z- Z-

81 82 84 86 87 89 90 93 93 95 97

, Fiber Brush

3-

98 100 101 102

5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

106 108 112 114 116 120 121 122 122 126 126 127 130 132 133

6. . . . . . . . . . . 136 , , LazyMouse ( )

137 138 140 141 144 147 147 150 152 153 155 156 159 161 163 165 167 168 169

172 176 177 178 181

7. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 , 3-

184 188 192 195 198 199 204 207 210 210 212 214

8. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218

Flat Color ( ) Ambient (), Diffuse ( ) Specular () Transparency () Reflectivity ()

MatCap MatCap

219 222 225 228 232 235 235 238 241 243 244 248 250 253 255 257

9. ZBrush 3D- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 UV- ZBrush Poser 262 265

Poser ZBrush -- ZBrush Poser

Bump (), Normal () Displacement () (Bump Maps) (Displacement Maps) (Normal Maps)

ZBrush Maya Maya ZBrush BumpViewerMaterial ZBrush MAP Maya

265 266 267 269 271 272 272 273 274 275 275 277 277 279 281 282 283 285 286 287 289 289 290

10. Z- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Projection Master Projection Master

ZAppLink ZAppLink ZAppLink

Multi Displacement Exporter Transpose Master Transpose Master Transpose Master

ZMapper Z- Z-

296 298 301 301 301 303 306 306 306 308 311 311

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1.3

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(anti-aliasing) , -. ,

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1.4

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4. , , Red, Green Blue. , . : 255, 0 (. 1.7). 5. Red, Green Blue: 255, 0 255. - .

1.7

RGBA , .. . - . 1.8 ,

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3D-; , , . , - . , , . .

1.8

ZBrush - , . , . , , . 24- RGB , 8 . 8- 256 , , 16 . 32- RGBA 8- -. , , . , , .

. . Tagged Image File Format (TIFF), Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) Graphics Interchange Format (GIF). . , Photoshop , Photoshop Document format (PSD). ,

1 , , ZBrush ZBR.

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, , JPEG GIF. Silicon Graphics Image (SGI). , , , JPEG. -, -. , , , , Portable Network Graphics (PNG), , , . . 1.9 , . , , , , .

1.9

, , ZBrush, . 3D- , .

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, , ( , ). . - . . , , . -

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. , 640480, , ; 720486 , 19201080 (HD). iMac, , 1440990. , ZBrush . , ZBrush, . .

, . , , , . , , . , , . 320240 200%, 640480. , . , , . , . : , , , . Dots per inch (DPI) , PPI (pixels per inch, ). , 100%- , 72dpi. , , 300dpi.

3- . , 320240 640480 4:3. 16:9 1,85:1, , . 16:9 1280720.

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, Maya. ZBrush, , .

, 3- . , , 3- , ( ZBrush , ). , , . ZBrush , 1.10. , ZBrush . , 3D-. , ZBrush , .

1.10

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3D-, , Maya, 3- X, Y Z. X- , Y- , Z- ( Y Z ). , 3- , 3- . , , . : . , , Y-, , .. . , Y , . , . , , . - . , , . ZBrush, , 3- , 3D- 3- 3- . , ( X Y), ( Z). 3D-, Maya, ZBrush . ZBrush, , . ZBrush , .

, 3- , , , , 3D-, . , 2- 3- . , , Photoshop, , 3D- , 3- . 3- . , . , ( ). 1.12.

1 , ,

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1.12

ZBrush , . , 3D- ZBrush. ZBrush (.. 4 ) . 3D- 3D-, , NURBS. ZBrush, . , , , . 3- . ZBrush , , , . ZBrush . ZBrush . , , . .. 3- , , (. 1.13). 3- . , . 3D- , . ZBrush , ZBrush .

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1.13

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1.14

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Pixologic ZBrush, , (2,5D). , , , . , ZBrush 3- , 3D-. 3- , ZBrush . , 2,5- ZBrush. , , , , - . , 3 4 . 3- , 2, 5, 6 7.

, . , , . , . - , . , , . , ZBrush. , , , . , , . , , , .

ZBrush. , , , ZBrush Character Creation: AdvancedDigital Sculpting, Scott Spencer (Sybex, 2008). .

1 , , -:www.pixologic.com www.zbrushcentral.com www.highend3d.com www.cgchannel.com www.gnomon3d.com www.gnomononline.com www.digitaltutors.com www.3d.sk www.conceptart.org

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:ZBrush Character Creation: Advanced Digital Sculpting, Scott Spencer (Sybex, 2008) The Artists Complete Guide to Facial Expressions, Gary Faigin (Watson-Guptill, 1990) Constructive Anatomy, George Bridgman (Dover, 1973) Bridgmans Life Drawing, George Bridgman (Dover, 1971) Artistic Anatomy, Dr. Paul Richer (Winston-Guptill, 1971) Anatomy for the Artist, Sarah Simblet (DK Publishing, 2001)

DVD: Gnomon ( www.thegnomonworkshop.com) DVD-, www.digitaltutors.com.

2 ZBrush

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2. ZBrush

ZBrush . . ZBrush , , , . 2 ZBrush. . , , , , , . . , . , , , ZBrush . . :

ZBrush (TransformaTion gyro)

2 ZBrush ZBrush

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3D- , , Maya, 3ds Max XSI, ZBrush . , : , 3D- ! , 3D . , ZBrush 3D-, , , . , . ZBrush, , , . : (Draw) (Edit). - ZBrush, , , , . - , . , - , . ZBrush : 3D Tool ( ). . - Draw Edit, , . , . (Tool). , , , . , . . , , .

ZBrush ZBrush, . , ZBrush, . , Other ( Esc). 2.1 ZBrush . , , , . , , , , , , . , -

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2.1. ZBrush

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2 ZBrush ZBrush

26

, (.2.2). , .

, , Ctrl

2.2.

, . (Current Brush), (Current Stroke), (Current Alpha), (Current Texture) (Current Material). Current Color. (Edit). (Edit), , . ( Edit ). , . . 2.3.

Current Stroke, , , . -

2 ZBrush .

27

Current Alpha, Current Texture Current Material , , ZBrush , (. .2.4). , 7 8. Current Color ,

2.4.

, . , ZBrush: ZMapper Projection Master (.2.5). ZMapper (Normal Maps), Projection Master . 10. . Draw Edit. , ZBrush. , ...

2.5.

2 ZBrush

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. . , , , , , . , . . , , , , . Draw , , ( , ). 2,5- , (, , .2.6). (Draw). (Edit) . (Edit), , , , . , , , , (Edit), , . 3D- . . 5 . , (Tool) . , . Draw () Edit () , , , ,

2.6. DemoHead ,

2 ZBrush

29

Move (), Scale () Rotate (). - , Edit Draw . (Draw) , . , , , Edit, , . . , . , Mrgb, Rgb, and M. , Rgb red-green-blue (--), . . ( Mrgb), (Rgb) (). , , . , . ZAdd, ZSub ZCut. ZAdd, , ZSub , ZCut . Z , . , Mrgb, Rgb M, . Focal Shift ( ) Draw Size ( ). , (.2.7). . , . Focal Shift , . , , . , .

2.7.

2 ZBrush (. .2.8). Scroll () Zoom () . , , . , Photoshop. Actual ( ) AAHalf ( ) 100% 50% . 50% , (anti-aliasing) . ZBrush, , 50%, . 1. , ZBrush . . Local ( ) , , . , . L.Sym , , . , . Move (), Scale () Rotate () , . , , . (Edit) . , .

30

2.8.

Frame . , , . , . XYZ, Y Z Rotate () . Transp () . , Lasso, , (Edit).

2 ZBrush

31

, , , , . , ZBrush. 1. ZBrush , . (DemoHead). ZBrush , DefaultZScript, , , Help. , DemoHead (.2.9). 2.9

2.10

2. DemoHead . : Edit () , , . , Draw () . Edit () . , , . , , , DemoHead. , , .2.10.

3. DemoHead. , . ( ). 4. Move () . , Draw () , . , . , (.2.11).

2 ZBrush 2.11.

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, . , , . , - , . ZBrush. ZBrush , , . 5. Move () . , . , : - , . . , . , . , ( ), . , , (..2.12).

2 ZBrush 2.12.

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Z. , , , , . , . Rotate () Scale () . Rotate () . ( ), . . Scale () , . Move (), Scale () Rotate () W, E R .

, (Ctrl+Z) , , , Ctrl+Z, , , , , , , , , , , !

2 ZBrush

34

(Edit). , ZBrush. (Edit) , , , Move (), Scale () Rotate () . (Edit) . , , , , . . DemoHead. 1. , , Draw . (Edit) ( ) Ctrl+N, . ZBrush, DefaultZScript , . DemoHead. (Edit). ZBrush , DemoHead . 2. . , . . Rotate () , . 3. Move () , . Alt , . 4. Scale () . , Alt, , Alt . . 5. , , . , . , , . 6. , Alt. ,

2 ZBrush

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Move (), Scale () Rotate () . 7. Shift, ( , 900). Scale () , Zoom , -

8. , Draw () . , ! (. .2.13).

2.13

, Draw (), Edit (). . , , , . DemoHead . 5. 9. , (Edit). , . Standard Brush ( ). , . -

2 ZBrush

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. , . 5 6. Ctrl, , , . 10. Move (), Scale () Rotate () . - (Edit), , (. 2.14). , . , , . 6. , , , .

2.14

11. (Edit) . , , , (. 2.15). (Tool). ( ). 12. , , , , . (Draw Size) (Focal Shift) . Move (), Scale () Rotate () , , . , , , ZAdd, ZSub ZCut. , , , .

2 ZBrush

37

2.15

, . . , Tool (), . Tool (Tool palette). , , , . . . , . , , . . 2.16. . , Alpha ZScript . Alpha, (. .2.17), , . , -. . Tool . , . Tool -, , , .

2.16

2 ZBrush

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-, Tool , . : , - , . , Tool , , , . , , . - . Tool . Tool. , , . , . , , . , . , Tool . Transform . Transform , Tool. .

2.17

, . , , . , , , , . , . , . , , ZBrush. . , , , . , , , , .

2 ZBrushAlpha ()

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Alpha , Displacement Exporter. Alpha Current Alpha , , . ZBrush , , , . 7. Alpha , , (. . 2.19).

2.19. Alpha

Brush () Brush , , Current Brush . . gravity (). , , . (Edit). . 5.

2 ZBrushColor ()

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Color Current Color . Modifiers. Document () Document , ZBrush. Photoshop (BMP, JPEG, TIFF). , Save, , , , . , ZBrush , , (Tool). Save Document ZBrush (.. ). , , Document (. . 2.20). Document , , , . Pro . , , . StoreDepthHistory DeleteDepthHistory Z. Projection Master.

2.20. Document

2 ZBrushDraw ()

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Draw () , . Size (), Focal Shift ( ), , (ZAdd, ZSub ZCut). -. . - 2,5- , (Draw), (Edit). , ZBrush. , , . (width), (height) (depth) , , imbed, , . , , . Draw (Persp) (Focal Length). ( ) . . Rgb 100%, . (refract) (blur) (. .2.21).

2.21

2 ZBrushEdit ()

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Undo ( ) Redo ( ). , . , , Ctrl+Z, Ctrl+Shift+Z. Layer () ZBrush , Photoshop. , ZBrush , 2D-, , ZBrush , . ZBrush . , 2,5- 3- , . , . , , , , . . Undo Redo. ZBrush 16 . Layer (. 2.22), . , . , , , . , , . - . 2.22. Layer Shift , . (~), , . ZBrush . , . , . , . Layer ,

2 ZBrush

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. . Wrap , . 3. Layer Layers Tool Edit

Light () . , , , . ZBrush . Light , (. . 2.23). , , . , ZBrush , , . , , , . 8. , . , . , ZBrush - . , .

2.23. Light

MatCap, , Red Wax, , Light , , Fast Shader ,

2 ZBrushMacro ()

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Macro . , ZBrush . , , . , , Macro . , , : , . , , . 1. New Macro ( ) Macro. : , , . 2. Document. 3. Pro. 4. (Width) 1440 Enter. 5. (Height) 810 Enter. 6. Resize ( ) , . 7. Macro End Macro ( ). Save (). Pixologic\ZBrush3\Startup\Macros. , . 8. Misc. , TXT, : ZScript. , 8 ; Macro. resizeTo16by9.txt . 9. Macro Reload All Macros ( ). , , - Misc, , ZBrush. 10. , . Pixologic\ZBrush3\Startup\Macros , Macro,

Marker () , , . ,

2 ZBrush

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. , . . Multi-marker, , . ZBrush , , . Material () ZBrush .. , . : MatCap, .. , , . ZBrush , 8. , Material , , , , . , Alpha, Material , , (. 2.25). Current Material . - Modifiers, , . , .

2.25.

Movie () ZBrush. , DVD , Movie . Movie ZBrush, . , .

2 ZBrushPicker ()

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Picker . , , , , (. 2.26). , . : 1. Default ZScript , ZBrush. 2. Dog (). Load Tool Tool, Dog. Program Files\Pixologic\ZBrush3\ZTools. 3. , Edit, . (Draw), , Picker. 4. , . . 5. Picker , . . , , Picker. , , , . . 6. (Current Stroke) DragRect Freehand. 7. . Once Ori , , , , , , . Cont Ori, . 8. - Color () Material () . 9. Z , . , 2.26. Picker

2 ZBrush (Once Z), (Cont Z).

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, ZBrush, Picker. . Preferences () ZBrush. , . Render () Render , , , . Light () Material (). ZBrush . . (. 2.27): Preview ( ) . . Fast ( ) , . Flat ( ) . Best ( ) . , . , , , . , , . ZBrush . 8.

2.27

2 ZBrushStencil ()

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Stencil Alpha (). , . , . .. . , . 1. Default ZScript , ZBrush. , . 2. DemoHead . 3. , (Edit) . , . 4. Alpha, . 5. , . 10 . 6. Make St, Alpha . 7. , , . . , - . (. 2.29). 8. . 9. MOV . 10. . Standard Brush. (.2.30). 11. , . , , . , MOV ROT, . 2.29

Stencil . RGB Elev

2 ZBrush

49 , ; .

2.30

Stroke () Stroke , (. 2.31). , . , Freehand . Freehand , . , , DragRect, . , , . Stroke . LazyMouse , , . , . , , LazyMouse: 1. Default ZScript , ZBrush. 2. PolySphere . 3. PolySphere Edit (). Standard brush . Dots. 2.31

2 ZBrush

504. PolySphere. 5. Stroke LazyMouse. 6. PolySphere. , (. 2.32). , .

2.32

7. PolySphere. , LazyMouse , .

8. - LazyMouse , . LazyStep, . LazyRadius (, , ). LazySmooth LazyMouse. Texture () Texture, Alpha Material, , . 2- , ZBrush (. 2.33). , . , , . 3D- . 7. : , Texture . . , , . . , .

2 ZBrush , . .

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2.33. Texture

Tool ( ) Tool ZBrush; . , ZBrush, , , . , , 2,5- (. 2.34). , , . , . . , , Z-, , Z-. , , , . . Tool : , 2,5-.

2.34. Tool

2 ZBrush

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2,5- 1. ZBrush Tool . 2. , (. 2.35). SphereBrush . , SphereBrush, 3DSphere. Freehand. 3. Move () , . ; Z. , . 2.35

4. Rotate () (. 2.36). 5. Draw () . , , . 6. Tool AlphaBrush.

7. Current Alpha 2.36 33. . (. 2.37). : Edit () 2,5- . 8. SphereBrush AlphaBrush, Modifiers Tool. - .

2 ZBrush

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2.37

3- 1. Ctrl+N, . 2. Tool, , Gear. 3D-. 3. , Edit () (. 2.38). 4. . 5. Tool - Initialize () (. 2.39). 6. Width (), IRadius ( ), . , . 7. . : To enable sculpting, please convert this 3D-Primitive to a PolyMesh3D by pressing the Make PolyMesh3D button in the Tool palette ( , , , 3D- 3D-, Make PolyMesh3D Tool). , ? 2.38 (.. -

2 ZBrush

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, , ). . , . , DemoHead Dog, . , - Initialize. , 3- . . 8. , , Tool: Gear, . . . , Edit () , . 3- . 9. Tool Save As ( ). . ZBrush.

2.39

10. MakePolymesh3D Tool. : . 3D-. , . Tool, Initialize: (. 2.41). 11. . , . 2.41

2 ZBrush

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12. Geometry () Tool Divide (). , (. 2.42). . SDiv, 2.42 . , . . , , ZBrush . , Tool. 1. Load Tool ( ) 2. . Pixologic\ZBrush3\ZTools. 3. DemoSoldier . 4. , . Edit () . 5. - Geometry Tool: , . , Tool. 6. SubTool (). , DemoSoldier , , . (. 2.43). 2.43

2 ZBrush

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7. - , , , . 8. . , , . 9. - Layers Tool ( Layer, ). New (. 2.44). 10. - , . 11. , . . 12. . . Intensity (). , , , . , . 13. Delete () - Layers. , , , Intensity. 14. . , . , Tool. , , , UV- . Tool , .

: , , Load Save Tool, Document Document, Tool OBJ Export Tool 2.44

2 ZBrushTransform () Transform , . Draw () Edit (), Move (), Rotate () Scale (), , , . , , Transform , . , , , (Edit). (. 2.45). . , , . , Activate Symmetry. , . M, , .

57

2.45

, , , , , , . , , , . , DemoHead, . . . R , . , , : 1. ZBrush. 2. Tool 3D Ring, (Edit). 3. , . , Z Z . 4. MakePolymesh3D Tool.

2 ZBrush

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5. Transform Activate Symmetry, . . . 6. Z, Z; X Y . 7. R, . Radial Count ( ) 8. 8. 8 , (. 2.46). , Transform , . XYZ, . - Info . , . 3D copy , .

2.46

Zoom () Zoom , . , -, . - , .

2 ZBrushZPlugin

59

ZPlugin ZBrush, web-, ZBrush. . , ZBrush Projection Master ZMapper. 10. ZScript ZBrush , ZScript. ZBrush , , , . , . TITLE ( ) , , . . , , , ZBrush, , ZBrush. . , Menus (), / . Default ZScript, . Help () - . , , . , . , , Preferences. , , , .

3 1

60

3. . 1

, , , ZBrush. ZBrush . , 2,5- 3- . :

3-

3 1

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. , - . ZBrush, , (2,5- 3- ), . , - . , . . , . , , , , . . . . 1. ZBrush. Other,

2. . , . , . Document Pro : Width () 3096, Height () 1742. Enter . Resize ( ). 3. , . Zoom, + - , . 4. , - . Color . Document Back ( ). , . Range (), Center () Rate (). 5. , Save As. underwaterScene_v1.zbr.

, . .

3 1

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1. Tool , . . 2. Plane 3D . 3. Move , . . , . , ( ) 1 (Ctrl+N) Draw 2 3 , Tool, , Draw, Edit

4. Rotate ( R) , . Shift , , 90 . 5. , . , Z, . , Move , . 6. Scale ( E) , . , (. 3.4). , ZBrush . . 7. , . , , Move Transform. - Info . - , Z. , , . 8. Z . , . , . , . ( ) , , . 9. Rotate , -

3 1

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Rotate. - Info. , Y Z . X = 0, Y = 0, Z = 90. 10. Scale Info, . 11. , , . Material , . Flat Color. . 12. Color - . . , , . 13. Tool Paintbrush () 2,5- . , . : Would you like to exit Edit/Transform mode and switch tools? ( / ?) Switch, . , , . , ZBrush. 1. 14. .

. , - , . 1. , Paintbrush . 2. -. 3. ZAdd . Rgb 30. . 4. (Draw Size) 70 , . 5. . 3.9 , . 6. , ,

3 1

64

3.9.

, , . , - . , . 7. , Erase! , . , . . 100 , . 8. , DragRect, (alpha) . 9. , , . , , ? . ZBrush . , , Photoshop. . BMP, PSD, TIFF JPEG. , , , , ZBrush. Import Document. Photoshop, , ZBrush .

. , 3- . , , . 1. Layer , Create.

3 1

65

ZBrush , , Photoshop. , . , , , Z. , , . , , , , Layer. , Layer , , , , , , , ,

, (Edit) , , , , : (Ctrl+N), Tool ,

2. , , - . Tool Cylinder3D . 3. Current Material . Fast Shader . 4. , R, Rotate. , (. . 3.10). , ; (.. ).

3.10

3 1

66

5. W, Move. , Z, . Transform - Info, Z. 3600. 3- , . , . Draw. 6. Draw Perspective, . (Focal length), . 70. Perspective . , , , , , , 3- , . , .

3- ZBrush 3- : , Z-. ZBrush 3D-, Z- , . - Initialize Tool. , , . . , . . Z- 4. , . 1. (.. ). , . , . (Ctrl+N), , Move ( W). - , , , Tool, , , , ! , , ,

3 12. , ( R).

67

3. - Info Transform, , Z . . , , , . Z, 3600, . 4. - Initialize Tool. TaperTop ( ) , , . 3.13. , . Rotate , .

3.13

5. , . 80 . . 6. Transform Quick . . , VDivide - Initialize. 7. , .

. .

3 11. Move.

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2. Transform Snapshot ( ) Shift+S. , , . , 3- . . 3. ,

4. Scale ( ). ( ), . 5. , . - Initialize Tool Z Size. 6. TaperTop. 7. , . 8. , . 3.15 .

3.15

3 1 ZCut

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. 3D Sphere ZCut. ZCut, ZSub , .. , . , ZCut , ZSub . . , . 1. 3D Sphere Tool. , . , , . 2. . 3. Scale ( ) , . 4. Move ( W) . ( ), (.3.16). 5. ZCut . , , 3.17. 6. , . . , . . . , , 3.18.

3.16

3.17

3.18

3 1

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Ring 3D (3- ), . . 1. Ring 3D Tool. 2. , Draw Perspective. 3. . 4. Move ( W) . 5. - Initialize SRadius, . 9 . 6. , , . 7. underSeaScene_v2.ZBR. -, . .

3- . - Deformation Tool. . , , . ZBrush , . 3- , , , , , , , , , . . 8 .

, , , 3D Ring . 1. 3D Ring Tool.

3 12. , Perspective Draw.

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3. Move, ( W). 4. - Initialize Tool coverage () = 100. . , . 3D-, 3- . - Initialize, . , 3- . 5. Edit ( ). Make Polymesh3D Tool. Edit , , , - Edit Make Polymesh3D, Tool, Tool , Edit , 3D- 3D-

6. Edit Rotate ( R). , . 7. - Deformation Tool. . , . , . , .. . . . , . , . (Ctrl+Z) . , , . , , , X, Y Z. . , , . , . 8. RFlatten ( ) - Deformation. , Z. , -

3 1

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, (. 3.24). 9. , Scale ( ). , . (.3.25). 10. Transform Quick, . 11. , Perspective Draw , .

3.24

3.25

Snapshot (), . 1. Move, ( W). 2. , , . 3. , , Snapshot Transform Shift+S. 4. (. 3.26).

3.26

3 1

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. ZBrush Preview, . Best quality ( ). , . , , , .. , , . . , . , . , S1, S2, S3 S4 modifier Material. ZBrush : MatCap. : MatCap , . , . MatCap . 8 . . ZBrush. Edit Transform, - , . , . , M Mrgb . M , , Mrgb + Color. . , , . , User Materials ( ). , , , . . , , , , . , , , . 1. underwaterScene_v3.ZBR 3 DVD.

3 12. Textured Metal . 3. PaintBrush Tool. 4. DragRect. 5. (Alpha off ). .

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6. , ZAdd, ZSub ZCut -

7. ; , , . 8. , , , , . 9. . 10. - Modifiers Material. S2 -, diffuse , : 80 . , . 11. .

. 1. JellyBean . 2. Sphere 3D Tool. 3. Rgb 5 . , (.3.31). 4. , Perspective Draw . Refract () = 60. . 5. , Quick Transform , . 3.31

3 16. .

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7. Move ( W) . 8. , , , . (. 3.33). 9. , Snapshot Transform. 10. , , Scale ( ), . 11. Snapshot. , (. 3.33).

3.33

. 1. Sphereinder 3D Tool. 2. Layer. 3. Picker , Cont Ori .

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121

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122

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