ï¥ With the lower jaw removed, the skull resembles a lopsided, hollow, bony sphere. The...

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Transcript of ï¥ With the lower jaw removed, the skull resembles a lopsided, hollow, bony sphere. The...

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  • With the lower jaw removed, the skull resembles a lopsided, hollow, bony sphere. The facial bones form its anterior aspect, and the cranium forms the rest of the skull. The cranium can be divided into a vault and a base. The cranial vault, also called the calvaria, forms the superior, lateral, and posterior aspects of the skull, as well as the forehead. The skull has about 85 named openings (foramina, canals, fissures, etc.) the most important of these provide passageways for the spinal cord, the major blood vessels serving the brain, and the 12 pairs of cranial nerves ( #s 1-12), which transmit impulses to and from the brain.
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  • Appendicular SkeletonAxial Skeleton
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  • Structured from 80 bones segregated into 3 major regions: Skull Vertebral Columns Bony Thorax This part of the skeleton supports the head, neck, and trunk, and it protects the brain, spinal cord, and the organs in the thorax
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  • The skull is the bodys most complex bony structure. Its formed by cranial and facial bones, 22 in all. Most skull bones are flat bones. Except for the mandible (jaw) which is connected to the rest of the skull by a freely movable joint
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  • Frontal Bone Shell-shaped frontal bone forms the anterior cranium. It articulates posteriorly w/ the paired parietal bones via the prominent coronal suture. The most anterior part of the frontal bone is the vertical frontal squama, commonly called the forehead.
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  • Parietal Bones and the Major Sutures The two large parietal bones are curved, rectangular bones that form most of the superior and lateral aspects of the skull; hence they form the bulk of the cranial vault.
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  • Cameron Braddy
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  • The facial skeleton is made up of 14 different bones. Mens faces are more elongated than women, meaning womens faces tend to be less angular.
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  • Plow shaped vomer, lies in the nasal cavity. Forms part of the nasal septum. Discussed below in connection with the nasal cavity.
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  • Inferior nasal conchae are two paired bones that are thin, curved and in the nasal cavity. Project medially from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity. Largest of the three pairs of conchae.
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  • Commonly referred to as our tailbone. Triangular bone Consists of four vertebrae fused together. Affords the pelvic organs. Nearly useless. Often snipped off by a physician.
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  • Bony underpinnings of the thorax. Roughly cone shaped. Forms a protective cage around the vital organs. Supports shoulders, and upper limbs. Provides attachment points for many muscles of the neck, back, chest, and shoulders.
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  • Thirty separate bones form each upper limb. The humerus is the sole bone of the arm. At the proximal end of each humerus is smooth hemispherical head, and at the distal end are two chondyles are medial trochlea.
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  • The Sternum is a flat bone located in the middle of the bony thorax. Means breastbone. The fusion of three bones, the manubrium, the body, and the xiphoid. Manubrium at the top, the body in the middle and the xiphoid at the bottom.
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  • By: Caroline Baker
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  • Page: 213- 216
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  • The orbits are bony cavities in which the eyes are firmly encased and cushioned by fatty tissue The orbits are formed by seven bones frontal, sphemoid, zygomatic, maxilla, palatine, lacrimal, and ethmoid bones.
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  • The nasal cavity is constructed of bone and hyaline cartilage. The roof of the nasal cavity is formed by the cribriform plate of the ethmoid.
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  • You can see this sinuses in an x- ray image Paranasal sinuses cluster around the nasal cavity
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  • U / horseshoe shaped The hyoid bone lies just inferior to the mandible in the anterior neck. Neck muscles that raise and lower the larynx durning swallowing and speech.
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  • Page: 226
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  • The sternum (breastbone) lies in the anterior midline of the thorax. The sternum is a flat bone and it is approximately 15 cm( 6 inches) long.
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  • An inability to maintain homeostasis may lead to death or a disease, a condition known as homeostatic imbalance.( Wikipedia) Of the sternum- in some people the xiphoid process projects dorsally
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  • Page: 233
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  • Two parallel long bones, the radius and the ulna. The ulna is slightly longer than the radius. It has the main responsibility for forming the elbow joint with the humerus. The radius (rod) is thin at its proximal end and wide distally- opposite of the ulna. The head of the radius is shaped somewhat like the head of a nail.
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  • Page: 243
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  • Two parallel bones, the tiba and fibula, form the skeleton of the leg, the region of the lower limb between the knee and the ankle. The tibia (shinbone) receives the weight of the body from the femur and transmits it to the foot. The fibula (pin) is a sticklike bone with slighty expanded ends.
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  • By: Kourtnie Moore
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  • The U- shaped or lower jaw bone. It is one of the largest, strongest bone of the face. It has a body, which forms the chin, and two upright rami branches.
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  • The Maxillary Bone is also called sometimes Maxillae. They form the upper jaw and the central portion of the facial skeleton. The Maxillae carry up the upper teeth in the Alveolar Margins. The Maxillae meet medially, forming the pointed Anterior Nasal Spine at their junction. The Palatine Processes of the maxillae project posterior form the alveolar margins and fuse medially. The Frontal Processes extend superiorly to the frontal bone, forming part of the lateral aspects of the bridge of the nose. The regions the flank the nasal cavity laterally contain the Maxillary Sinuses. Laterally, the maxillae articulate with the zygomatic bones via their Zygomatic Processes. The Inferior Orbital Fissure is located deep within the orbit at the junction of the maxilla.
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  • The irregularly shaped bones. Are commonly called the cheek bones. They join in with the Temporal Posteriorly and with the Zygomatic processes of maxilla Anteriorly. The Zygomatic Bones form the prominences of the cheeks and part of the inferolateral margins of the orbits.
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  • By: Brandon Jenkins
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  • In order for the bone structures to stand up they have to have a system of cable like supports. The strap like ligaments and trunk muscles assume that role. There are two major supporting ligaments they are the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments which run a continuous band down the front and back of the spine as shown to the right.
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  • The intervertebral disc is a cushion like pad between each disc. It has two parts the nucleus pulpous which acts like a rubber ball and gives the disc its elasticity and the annulus fibrosus which limits the expansion of the nucleus pulpous. They act as shock absorbers when your living your everyday lives. These disc are about 25% of your spinal weight.
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  • A homeostatic imbalance is a sudden physical trauma to the spine- for example there is a herniated disc also referred to as a slipped disc. The disc can slip and pinch a nerve causing numbness and severe pain. They can be treated with medicine but if it fails they have to do surgery.
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  • Structure All vertebrae have a common structural pattern. Each vertebrae consists of a body, or centrum, anteriorly and a vertebral arch posteriorly. The vertebral arch is a composite structure formed by two pedicles (little foot) and two laminae.
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  • 1. Flexion and extension (anterior bending and posterior straightening of the spine) 2. Lateral flexion (bending the upper body to the right or left). 3. Rotation (in which vertebrae rotate on one another in the longitudinal axis of the spine).
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  • Anatomy and Physiology
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  • Butterfly-shaped Considered the keystone of the cranium because it form the central wedge that articulates with all other cranial bones.
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  • Within the body of the sphenoid are the paired sphenoid sinuses. The superior of the body bears a saddle-shaped prominence is the sella turcica meaning Turks saddle. The seat of the saddle is called the hypophyseal.
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  • The lateral surfaces of the body are united with the great wings and the medial pterygoid plates. Above the attachment of each great wing is a broad groove, curved something like the italic letter f; it lodges the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, and is named the carotid groove. Along the posterior part of the lateral margin of this groove, in the angle between the body and great wing, is a ridge of bone, called the lingula. The pos