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  • Sparta topographic map by J. D. Barbi du Bocage from "Travels of Anacharsis" published 1817

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  • Helots are served excessive alcohol by the Spartans so that their drunken behaviour serves as an object lesson for Spartans.

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  • Within ancient Sparta, a group of young men scoured the countryside, killing serfs known as helots. The nature of this ancient Spartan institution the krypteia has long been debated by scholars. Some have seen it as a bloody culmination of the Spartan educational system, others as a form of suppression against the helot population. This essay, however, challenges the traditional notions surrounding the krypteia by finding a connection between its unconventional mode of fighting to a model of modern guerrilla warfare techniques. By examining this historic institution, the historian can gain insight into the evolution of warfare.

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  • Spartan female athlete.

  • Spartan woman trains a male athlete in palaestra Tondo from an Attic red-figure plate, 520510 BC. From Vulci. Louvre, Paris

  • Spartan woman and a male athlete in palaestra. Late Archaic (ca 5 century BC). Attic Red Figure; Amphora. A nude athlete talks with a woman (presumably his trainer). Louvre, Paris

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