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  • Slide 1
  • Scale Design
  • Slide 2
  • Measurement Scale ( ) (attribute or property) (i.e., service quality, guest satisfaction) Attitude
  • Slide 3
  • ATTITUDE AFFECTIVE COMPONENT COGNITIVE COMPONENT BEHAVIORAL COMPONENT
  • Slide 4
  • I love my job I hate my boss Copyright 2000 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. AFFECTIVE
  • Slide 5
  • I like my job because I believe the pay is great I hate my boss because I think he is unfair COGNITIVE
  • Slide 6
  • BEHAVIORAL I like my job because I believe the pay is great, so I want to continue to work here. I hate my boss because I think he is an unfair, so I plan to quit my job.
  • Slide 7
  • ATTITUDE SCALE Direction vs. Valence . Consistency
  • Slide 8
  • RATING SCALE RANKING SCALE ARBITRARY SCALE CONSENSUS SCALE ITEM ANALYSIS CUMULATIVE SCALE
  • Slide 9
  • Rating Scale 1-5 or 1-7
  • Slide 10
  • Rating Scale Graphic rating scale Simple category scale Likert scale Semantic differential scale Numerical scale Stapel scale
  • Slide 11
  • Graphic Rating Scales Data: ordinal / interval 3 2 1 Very Good Poor
  • Slide 12
  • Simple category scale Data: Nominal
  • Slide 13
  • The Likert Scale Data: interval popular 1-5 1-7 strongly agree, agree, uncertain, disagree, and strongly disagree
  • Slide 14
  • . ___1. Strongly Agree ___2. Agree ___3. Not Sure ___4. Disagree ___5. Strongly Disagree
  • Slide 15
  • Semantic Differential Data: Interval ( )
  • Slide 16
  • : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ :
  • Slide 17
  • : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ :
  • Slide 18
  • Numerical Scale Data: Ordinal/interval 5 4 3 2 1 _2___ __4___ __5__
  • Slide 19
  • Stapel Scales Data: ordinal/interval semantic differential 10 :
  • Slide 20
  • +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 -2 -3 -4 -5 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 -2 -3 -4 -5 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 -2 -3 -4 -5
  • Slide 21
  • : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ :
  • Slide 22
  • Ranking Scale
  • Slide 23
  • Ranking Scale Paired comparison Rank order Successive intervals
  • Slide 24
  • Paired Comparison N=n(n-1)/2 N= n= / Data: Ordinal
  • Slide 25
  • BMWMercedes PorscheBMW MercedesLexus Mercedes Porsche LexusMercedes
  • Slide 26
  • Forced Ranking Scale Data: Ordinal Porsche BMW Lexus Mercedes Audi
  • Slide 27
  • Successive intervals Data: Ordinal
  • Slide 28
  • Rating Ranking Arbitrary, consensus, item analysis, cumulative scale, factor scale (gender, age) Attitude ( ) preference measure non-preference measure Nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio Uni-dimensional Multi-dimensional
  • Slide 29
  • Slide 30
  • Slide 31
  • Slide 32
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  • Slide 34
  • Arbitrary scale Consensus scale Item analysis Cumulative scale Factor scale
  • Slide 35
  • Arbitrary scale low cost
  • Slide 36
  • Consensus Scale ( ) ! ( ) Thurstone Differential Scale &
  • Slide 37
  • from (EX: ) 11 ( 1 6 11 ) ( ) 10 10
  • Slide 38
  • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. : / : / (5+7+8+10+11)/5=8.2
  • Slide 39
  • Item Analysis ( 25%) vs. ( 25%) (t-test) Likert Scale 25 data
  • Slide 40
  • Cumulative Scale (Guttman Scalogram) ( )(uni-dimension) ~ >0.90
  • Slide 41
  • Factor Scales multi-dimensional scale
  • Slide 42
  • Error for rating scale Leniency Positive leniency Negative leniency : Central tendency : Halo effect :