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არის თუ არა საქართველო ბუფერული სახელმწიფო - თორნიკე თურმანიძე

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  • bTkk-politikis kvlevis jgufisagareo politikis programabTkk-politikis kvlevis jgufisagareo politikis programa

    Tornike TurmaniZeTornike TurmaniZe

    sagareo politikis kvlevebis seria # 1sagareo politikis kvlevebis seria # 1

    aris Tu ara saqarTvelo buferuli saxelmwifo?aris Tu ara saqarTvelo buferuli saxelmwifo?

  • qvemoT warmodgenilia vrceli nawyveti bTkk-politikis kvlevis jgufis wevris

    Tornike TurmaniZis saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis doqtoris akademiuri xarisxis

    mosapoveblad wardgenili sadisertacio naSromidan `buferuli saxelmwifoebi.~

    2006 wels bTkk-politikis kvlevis jgufma Tornike TurmaniZis amave saxelwodebis

    wigni gamosca , xolo 2009 wels aSS-Si aRniSnuli wignis inglisurenovani versia

    gamoqveynda.

    2010Tbilisi

  • 1termini `buferi~ (Buffer) politikuri erTeulis mimarT pirvelad gamoyenebul iqna 1876 wels, xolo termini `buferuli saxelmwifo~ (Buffer State) _ 1883 wels. orive SemTxvevaSi ingliselebma amgvarad avRaneTi moixsenies, romelic imJamad eqspansiis procesSi myofi ruseTisa da britaneTis imperiebis interesTa sferoebis gammijvnel teritorias warmoadgenda centralur aziaSi.1

    inglisuri enis ganmartebiT leqsikonebsa da inglisurenovan enciklopediebSi sityva `buferis~ mravali mniSvnelobaa mocemuli. zogadi gansazRvrebiT, buferi aris:

    is, rac amcirebs an STanTqavs dartymis Zalas; is, rac icavs raimes sawinaaRmdego zemoqmedebisa da gavlenisagan, misi

    Sekavebis an Semsubuqebis gziT; is, rac aSoriSorebs potenciurad antagonistur erTobebs; metoqe Zalebs

    Soris moqceuli teritoria, romelic konfliqtis safrTxis Semcirebas emsaxureba;2

    nebismieri mowyobiloba an sagani, romelic Sejaxebis simZlavres an kontaqtis Sedegad miRebuli dartymis zians amcirebs;

    nebismieri ram, rac damcav barierad gamoiyeneba;3 raime moxvedrili or Zlier Zalas Soris, romelic maT Setakebas uSlis

    xels.4

    politikis garda, termini `buferi~ gamoiyeneba teqnikis, qimiis, kompiuterebisa da sxva sferoebSi. ase magaliTad: teqnikaSi: mowyobiloba dartymebis Sesamsubuqeblad (gansakuTrebiT sarkinigzo vagonebze);5 qimiaSi: xsnari, romelic mudmiv mJavianobas inarCunebs anu axdens wyalbadis ionebis stabilizacias masSi damatebuli mJavis an tutis neitralizaciis gziT;6 kompiuterebSi: informaciis droebiTi Sesanaxi adgili;7

    da a.S. qarTul enciklopediur gamocemebSi sityva `buferis~ mxolod teqnikuri

    ganmartebebia mocemuli: buferi _ zambariani rkinis disko Sejaxebis Sesarbileblad

    1 Thomas Ross, Buffer States: A Geographers Perspective, in Buffer States in World Politics, ed. John Chay and Thomas Ross (Boulder: Westviev Press, 1986), 16. didi britaneTisa da ruseTis metoqeoba centralur aziaSi XIX saukunidan XX saukunis dasawyisamde istoriaSi `didi TamaSis~ saxelwodebiT aris cnobili.2 Buffer2, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Houghton Mifflin Company, Fourth Edition, 2000), http://www.bartleby.com/61/31/B0533100.html (accessed 10.06.2009).3 Buffer2, Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (Merriam-Webster, Inc., 2005), http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/buffer(accessed 10.06.2009).4 Buffer, The Dictionary of Government and Politics. ed. P. H. Collin (Middlesex: Peter Collin Publishing, Second Edition, 1997), 33, 34.5 Buffer, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, ed. J. Sykes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, Seventh Edition, 1982), 118; Buffer, Buffer2, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Fourth Edition, 2000, Houghton Mifflin Company), http://www.bartleby.com/61/31/B0533100.html (accessed 10.06.2009).6 Buffer, The Columbia Encyclopedia (Sixth Edition, 2001-2005), http://www.bartleby.com/65/bu/buffer.html(accessed 10.06.2009).7 Buffer2, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Houghton Mifflin Company, Fourth Edition,2000), http://www.bartleby.com/61/31/B0533100.html (accessed 11.06.2009).

    buferi _ cneba

  • 2(vagonis, lokomotivis Tavsa da boloSi);8 buferis daniSnulebaa dartymebis miReba da Serbileba avariis dros.9

    inglisuri sityva `buferi~ (Buffer) savaraudod warmoebulia inglisuri sityvidan buff rac, rogorc arsebiTi saxeli, rbil, sqel tyavs (ZiriTadad kameCis gadamuSavebul tyavs), xolo rogorc zmna, raime sagnis zedapiris moprialebas, Serbilebas niSnavs. Tavis mxriv, sityva buff an kameCis inglisuri mniSvnelobidanaa miRebuli (inglisuri buffalo < gvianlaTinuri bubalus < berZnuli ) an ubralod msubuqi sxeulis dartymis xmis imitacias warmoadgens. buferis sinonimebia: barieri, fari, damcveli, jebiri, zRude, bamperi, baliSi da sxva.10

    inglisuri enis leqsikonebSi termini `buferuli saxelmwifo~ (Buffer State) ZiriTadad asea ganmartebuli:

    patara saxelmwifo or SesaZlo metoqe Zalas Soris, romelic maT Soris omis dawyebis albaTobas amcirebs;11

    or metoqe da potenciurad mtrul saxelmwifos Soris mdebare neitraluri saxelmwifo, romelic maT Soris konfliqtis Tavidan acilebas emsaxureba;12

    neitraluri saxelmwifo, romelic or ufro did, potenciurad metoqe saxelmwifos Soris aris ganlagebuli;13

    patara neitraluri saxelmwifo, romelic or potenciurad mowinaaRmdege Zalas Soris aris moqceuli da maT Soris konfliqtis risks amcirebs;14

    saxelmwifo, romelic ufro did, potenciurad mtrul saxelmwifoebs Soris mdebareobs.15

    termini `buferuli zona~ (Buffer Zone) ki imave inglisurenovan gamocemebeSi Semdegnairad aris axsnili:

    neitraluri teritoria mtrul an meomar Zalebs Soris, romelic konfliqtis Tavidan acilebas axdens;16

    8 `buferi,~ qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, erTtomeuli, red. a. Ciqobava (Tbilisi. saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademia, 1986), 65.9 `buferi,~ qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia, II (Tbilisi: saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademia, 1977), 590.10 Buffer, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, ed. J. Sykes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, Seventh Edition, 1982), 118; Buffer2, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Houghton Mifflin Company, Fourth Edition, 2000), http://www.bartleby.com/61/31/B0533100.html (accessed 11.06.2009).11 Buffer State, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, ed. J. Sykes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, Seventh Edition, 1982), 118.12 Buffer State, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Houghton Mifflin Company, Fourth Edition, 2000), http://www.bartleby.com/61/32/B0533200.html (accessed 11.06.2009).13 Buffer State, Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (Merriam-Webster, Inc., 2005), http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/buffer%20state (accessed 11.06.2009).14 Buffer State, Encarta World English Dictionary (Microsoft Corporation, North American Edition, 2006),

    http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861694156/buffer_state.html (accessed 11.06.2009).15 Buffer State, Random House Unabridged Dictionary (Random House, Inc., on Infoplease, 1997), http://www.infoplease.com/ipd/A0354846.html (accessed 11.06.2009).16 Buffer Zone, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Houghton Mifflin Company, Fourth Edition, 2000), http://www.bartelby.com/61/33/B0533300.html (accessed 12.06.2009).

  • 3 neitraluri teritoria, romelic mtrul Zalebs Soris mdebareobs da maT Soris konfliqtis risks amcirebs. areali, romelic warmoadgens bariers potenciuri konfliqtis an SeiaraRebuli Setakebis Tavidan asacileblad;17

    neitraluri zona an areali or potenciurad mtrul saxelmwifos Soris, romelic Seqmnilia daufaravi agresiis Sesakaveblad. teritoria potenciuri konfliqtis Sesamcireblad an gasaneitraleblad.18

    aqve, aucilebelia, xazi gaesvas gansxvavebas terminis `buferuli zona~ or mniSvnelobas Soris: pirvel SemTxvevaSi, es aris erTi an meti buferuli saxelmwifos momcveli teritoria, meore SemTxvevaSi ki, konfliqtur an sasazRvro regionSi, mxareTa gamijnvis mizniT, saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebiT dadgenili specialuri demilitarizebuli zona.

    saerTaSoroso urTierTobebis literaturaSi buferuli saxelmwifos cnebis axsnis pirveli mcdelobebi 1930-ian wlebSi gaCnda. amerikeli mecnieri pitman poteri 1930 wels gamocemul socialuri mecnierebebis enciklopediaSi werda: `termini [`buferuli saxelmwifo~] xSirad ixmareba susti, zomiT patara, damoukidebeli sagareo politikis armqone saxelmwifos dasaxasiaTeblad, romelic or an met Zlier saxelmwifos Soris mdebareobs da, amrigad, saerTaSoriso agresias abrkolebs.~19

    1940-ian wlebSi buferuli saxelmwifoebis fenomenma geopolitikis amerikuli skolis mamamTavris nikolas spaikmenis yuradReba miipyro. spaikmenis ganmartebiT, buferebi arian `mcire politikuri erTeulebi, ganlagebulni ufro did saxelmwifoebs Soris.~20

    realizmis amerikuli skolis patriarqma hans morgenTaum ki 1948 wels gamoqveynebul Tavis klasikur naSromSi politika erebs Soris buferuli saxelmwifoebi ganmarta, rogorc `susti saxelmwifoebi, romlebic Zlier saxelmwifoebTan axlos mdebareoben da maT samxedro usafrTxoebas zrdian.~21

    1950-iani wlebis miwuruls buferul saxelmwifoebs metad saintereso Sroma miuZRvna saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis inglisuri skolis fuZemdebelma martin uaiTma es iyo misi statia `Zalis modeli,~ romelic Semdgom cnobil krebulSi Zalis politika iqna Setanili. uaiTis gansazRvrebiT: `buferuli saxelmwifo aris susti Zala (saxelmwifo) moqceuli or an met ufro Zlier Zalas (saxelmwifos) Soris, romelic SenarCunebulia an sulac Seqmnilia maT Soris konfliqtis Sesamcireblad. buferuli zona ki or an met Zlier Zalas (saxelmwifos) Soris mdebare regionia, romelic erT an met ufro sust Zalas (saxelmwifos) ukavia; mas zogjer `Zalis vakuumsac~ uwodeben.~22

    17Buffer Zone, Encarta World English Dictionary (Microsoft Corporation, North American Edition, 2006), http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861694158/buffer_zone.html (accessed 12.06.2009).18 Buffer Zone, Random House Unabridged Dictionary (Random House, Inc., on Infoplease, 1997), http://www.infoplease.com/ipd/A0354848.html (accessed 12.06.2009).19 Pit