ბუნებრივი კატასტროფები

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Transcript of ბუნებრივი კატასტროფები

2008

arabunebrivi katastrofebi UnnatUral Disasters

SesavaliyoveldRiurad ufro da ufro met informacias viRebT msoflioSi momxdari katastrofebis Sedegad garemosa da sazogadoebisaTvis miyenebuli zianis Sesaxeb. sxvadasxva saxis katastrofebs Soris gansakuTrebuli adgili bunebriv katastrofebs uWiravT, romelTa mier gamowveuli ekonomikuri zarali bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi ramdenime aTeuli miliardi dolariT ganisazRvreba. bunebrivi katastrofebi bunebrivi garemos gauaresebasTan erTad did socialur da demografiul zians ayeneben qveynebis umravlesobas. bunebrivi katastrofebis Sesaxeb msoflio bankis 2005 wlis moxsenebis mixedviT, msoflio mosaxleobis naxevarze meti - 3.4 miliardi adamiani - cxovrobs arealSi, sadac, sul cota, erTi bunebrivi katastrofis dasabuTebuli saSiSroeba arsebobs. 160 qveyanaSi adgilobrivi mosaxleobis meoTxedze meti cxovrobs bunebrivi katastrofebis maRali riskis mqone teritoriebze1. katastrofebis epidemiologiuri kvlevis centris mier 2007 wels momzadebuli angariSis mixedviT, 2006 wels bunebrivi katastrofebiT gamowveulma ekonomikurma zaralma 34 miliardi dolari Seadgina2. STambeWdavia bunebrivi katastrofebis Sedegebis salikvidaciod daxarjuli Tanxis raodenobac. moviyvanT msoflios masStabiT am miznebiT daxarjuli Tanxis arasrul nusxas: ukanaskneli ori aTwleulis manZilze (1980-2003 wlebSi) mxolod msoflio bankma gasca 14.4 miliardi aSS dolaris gadaudebeli sesxi bunebrivi katastrofebiT yvelaze metad dazaralebuli 20 qveynisaTvis. 1999-2003 wlamde msoflioSi momxdari bunebrivi katastrofebis Sedegad miyenebulma ekonomikurma zaralma 212.692 miliardi dolari Seadgina. aqedan yvelaze meti evropisa da aziis qveynebze modis, sadac zarali 161.5 miliardi dolari iyo3.

1. (ECLAC, World Bank) Natural Disaster Hotspots: A Global Risk Analysis Risk Identification for Disaster Risk Management Maxx Dilley International Research Institute for Climate Prediction. 2. P. Hoyois, R. Below, J-M Scheuren, D. Guha-Sapir; Annual Disaster Statistical Review: Numbers and Trends 2006; Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters; Brussels, May 2007. 3. D. Guha-Sapir, D. Hargitt, P. Hoyois; Thirty Years of Natural Disasters 1974-2003: The Numbers; Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters; Louvain, 2004.

Sesavali

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qarTuli realobabunebrivi katastrofebis sixSiris TvalsazrisiT, erT-erTi problemuri qveyana saqarTveloa. sayuradReboa saerTaSoriso kvleviTi centrebis monacemebi, romlebic asaxaven saqarTvelosaTvis bunebrivi katastrofebiT miyenebul da SesaZlo zarals. SedarebisaTvis mogvyavs samxreT kavkasiis regionSi saqarTvelos ori mezobeli qveynis, somxeTisa da azerbaijanis, monacemebi, saidanac naTlad Cans, rom bolo 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi bunebrivi katastrofebis Sedegad saqarTvelosaTvis miyenebuli zarali 3-jer da ufro metad aRemateba uSualod mosazRvre qveynebis imave maCvenebels:

qveyana

1999-2003 wlebSi miyenebuli ekonomikuri zarali (mln. aSS dolari)4

1999-2008 wlebSi bunebrivi katastrofebiT dazaralebuli adamianebis raodenoba5

1999-2008 wlebSi bunebrivi katastrofebiT miyenebuli ekonomikuri zarali (mln. aSS dolari)6

SesaZlo bunebrivi katastrofebiT gamowveuli ekonomikuri zaralis wliuri riski (miliardi aSS dolari)7

saqarTvelo somxeTi azerbaijani

337 107 113

719,246 297,000 43,964

552 100 170

4 20.8 1.5

miuxedavad saqarTvelos teritoriis farTobis SedarebiTi simcirisa, misi bunebrivi pirobebi (mdebareoba geologiurad aqtiuri ubnebis teritoriaze, reliefi, klimati, hidrografiuli qseli, flora, fauna da a.S.) gamoirCeva mniSvnelovani mravalferovnebiT. bunebrivi pirobebis mravalferovneba, erTi mxriv, warmoadgens unikalur resurss, xolo, meore mxriv, gamomdinare bunebrivi procesebis aqtiurobidan, romelic damaxasiaTebelia amgvari regionebisaTvis, mniSvnelovan siZneleebs qmnis qveynis ganviTarebisaTvis. bunebrivi katastrofebis sakiTxze muSaobisas saxelmwifos midgoma, saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, or ZiriTad komponents unda moicavdes: 1. moaxdinos arsebuli resursebis mobilizeba bunebrivi katastrofebis prognozirebasa da prevenciaze, rac TavisTavad gulisxmobs im struqturebis gaZlierebas, romlebic pasuxismgebeli arian saSiSi bunebrivi procesebis prognozirebasa da prevenciuli zomebis dagegmva-ganxorcielebaze. 2. maqsimalurad srulyos ukve damdgari uaryofiTi Sedegebis likvidaciaze pasuxismgebeli struqturebi. rac, erTi mxriv, katastrofebis Sedegad miRebuli ekonomikuri zaralis Semcirebasa da, meore mxriv, operatiuli reagirebis SemTxvevaSi, adamianTa msxverplis maqsimalurad Tavidan acilebas uzrunvelyofs.

4. Cristoph Pusch; Prevantable Losses: Saving lives and Property through Hazard Risk Management, (A Comprehensive Risk Management Framework for Europe and Central Asia; The World Bank, October 2004). 5. EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database www.em-dat.net - Universit Catholique de Louvain - Brussels Belgium. 6. EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database www.em-dat.net - Universit Catholique de Louvain - Brussels Belgium. 7. Cristoph Pusch; Prevantable Losses: Saving lives and Property through Hazard Risk Management, (A Comprehensive Risk Management Framework for Europe and Central Asia; The World Bank, October 2004).

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Sesavali

situacia rTuldeba, rodesac saxelmwifos moqmedeba uwevs SezRuduli resursebis pirobebSi. aseT SemTxvevaSi, rogorc wesi, ZiriTadi aqcenti gadadis am ori mimarTulebidan erT-erTze. zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, ibadeba kiTxvebi: romeli midgoma ufro marTebulia saqarTvelosaTvis da romeli mimarTulebiT unda moxdes resursebis mobilizeba. amJamad saqarTvelos xelisuflebis midgoma meore mimarTulebaze aqcentirebas gulisxmobs, risi TvalsaCino dadasturebacaa qveyanaSi bunebrivi procesebis monitoringsa da prevenciaze pasuxismgebeli struqturis - garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros - monitoringisa da prognozirebis centris, amJamad garemos erovnuli saagentos, programuli dafinanseba:

#

weli

biujeti larebSi

1 2 3

2006 2007 2008

2 224 000 1 535 000 2 235 000

2008 wels centris dafinanseba (hidrologiuri sadgurebis sareabilitacio samuSaoebis xarjze) 2 235 000 laramde gaizarda. miuxedavad am zrdisa, monitoringisa da prognozirebis centris biujeti garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros mTliani biujetis 6% Seadgens, rac dReisaTvis am mimarTulebis araprioritetulobaze miuTiTebs.

Sefasebis struqturaam Sefasebis mTavari mizania, warmodgena Seuqmnas mkiTxvels, zogadad, msoflioSi da, konkretulad, saqarTveloSi bunebrivi katastrofebis marTvis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebul zogad mdgomareobasa da problemebze. aRniSnuli naSromi Semdegnairadaa agebuli: pirveli nawili aRwers ukanasknel wlebSi saqarTveloSi momxdar bunebriv katastrofebs, maT sixSiresa da masStabebs. moyvanili monacemebis gasamyareblad warmovadgenT Cven mier SerCeul regionebSi (aWaris mTianeTi da samegrelo - zemo svaneTi) arsebul mdgomareobas da konkretuli magaliTebis safuZvelze SevafasebT im saSiSroebebs, romlebic emuqreba am regionebsa da maT mosaxleobas. meore Tavi ZiriTadad Seexeba bunebrivi katastrofebis gamomwvev anTropogenur mizezebs, rogoricaa: xe-tyis Wra, wiaRiseuli resursebis araswori eqspluatacia, wylis kalapotebis Caxergva da klimatis cvlileba. vnaxavT, ramdenad saWiroa am tipis saqmianobaSi winaswari prognozireba da ramdenad axdenen isini gavlenas saSiSi bunebrivi procesebis gaaqtiurebaze. bunebrivi katastrofebis Sedegad gamowveuli zaralis Sefaseba iqneba mesame Tavis ZiriTadi Tema. kerZod, vaCvenebT, ra Tanxas xarjavs saqarTvelo bunebrivi katastrofebis Sedegebis likvidaciaze da ramdenad srulfasovnad uzrunvelyofs es Tanxa am

Sesavali

|5

process. am TavSive yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier ekomigrantebisaTvis gaweuli sxvadasxva saxis daxmarebebze. vnaxavT, rom maTi gadasaxleba saqarTvelos sxva regionebSi xSir SemTxvevaSi warmoqmnis damatebiT socialur, ekonomikur da, zogierT SemTxvevaSi, politikur problemebsac ki. meoTxe Tavis Sinaarsi koncentrirebuli iqneba mTavrobis mier dRemde gaweul saqmianobebze bunebrivi katastrofebis monitoringisa da prognozirebis saqmeSi, agreTve dReisaTvis am mimarTulebiT arsebul tendenciebze. es Tavi moicavs saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros 1999-2007 wlebis biujetis analizs bunebrivi katastrofebis monitoringis, prognozirebisa da prevenciis kuTxiT. am TavSive iqneba moyvanili saxelmwifo struqturebis mier ganxorcielebuli monitoringisa da prognozirebis Sedegad bunebrivi katastrofebis Tavidan acilebis an maTi zaralis sagrZnoblad Semcirebis konkretuli magaliTebi. warmovaCenT monitoringisa da prognozirebis centris saqmianobis efeqturobas. mexuTe TavSi yuradReba gamaxvilebuli iqneba imaze, Tu ra SeiZleba gakeTdes bunebrivi katastrofebis Semcirebis mizniT an, saerTod, Tavidan acilebisaTvis. aq iqneba Tavmoyrili msoflioSi adaptirebul midgomebze dayrdnobili Cveni rekomendaciebi.

Tavi IsaxifaTo tendencia: bunebrivi katastrofebis sixSire da masStabi

bunebrivi katastrofebis sixSire da masStabi

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saqarTvelos reliefi, hidrografiuli qseli, meteorologiuri pirobebi da garemoze maRali anTropogenuri zewola, xelsayrel pirobebs qmnian iseTi bunebrivi katastrofebis ganviTarebisaTvis, rogoricaa: Rvarcofi, mewyeri, mdinaris mier napirebis Camorecxva, teritoriis datborva da sxv. ukanasknel wlebSi saqarTveloSi ganviTarebuli bunebrivi stiqiuri movlenebis statistikis warmoCenisas daveyrdnobiT monitoringisa da prognozirebis centris, Sinagan saqmeTa saministros sagangebo situaciebis departamentis monacemebsa da Cven mier sakvlevad SerCeuli raionebis mmarTvelobiTi struqturebis informaciebs. saqarTvelos garemos dacvisa da bunebrivi resursebis saministros monitoringisa da prognozirebis centris8 monacemebiT, bolo wlebSi momxdari bunebrivi katastrofebis sixSire da masStabi mkveTrad gaizarda, gansakuTrebiT mTagorian da mTispira raionebSi. 2004 wels gaaqtiurebulma geologiurma stiqiurma procesebma 2005 wels kulminacias miaRwies. qveynis ma