2.2.2 UTRAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 ... 2.4 UMTS Air Interface

Click here to load reader

download 2.2.2 UTRAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 ... 2.4 UMTS Air Interface

of 70

  • date post

    19-Aug-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    213
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of 2.2.2 UTRAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 ... 2.4 UMTS Air Interface

  • Contents

    1 Introduction 81.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.2 QoS Basic Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.3 Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.4 Project Time Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.5 About this report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    2 Overview of UMTS 132.1 UMTS Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132.2 UMTS Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

    2.2.1 User Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.2.2 UTRAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.2.3 Core Network (CN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162.2.4 Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    2.3 UMTS protocol stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.3.1 UMTS user plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.3.2 UMTS control plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

    2.4 UMTS Air Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202.4.1 The physical layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202.4.2 The MAC layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212.4.3 RLC layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222.4.4 RRC layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222.4.5 Transport channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    2.5 PDP Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232.5.1 PDP context states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242.5.2 PDP context procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    3 UMTS QoS 263.1 UMTS QoS architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263.2 UMTS QoS classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273.3 UMTS QoS mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

    1

  • CONTENTS

    3.3.1 QoS Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283.3.2 Traffic Flow Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283.3.3 PDP context signalling procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

    3.4 UMTS QoS management entities and mechanism . . . . . . . . . 333.5 Conslusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

    4 IP QoS 384.1 DiffServ approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

    4.1.1 Per Hop Behaviors(PHB) and Differentiated Services CodePoint(DSCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

    4.1.2 Per Hop Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394.1.3 Traffic classification and conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . 414.1.4 Queuing - RED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414.1.5 Meter and Marker functions - Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . 434.1.6 Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

    4.2 IntServ/RSVP Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464.3 Comparison between IntServ and DiffServ . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

    5 NS-2 simulator and preliminary simulation 475.1 Overview of ns2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475.2 DiffServ module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

    5.2.1 AF PHB Implementation with multiple RED queues . . . 495.2.2 Policer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505.2.3 Scheduler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

    5.3 UTRAN extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515.3.1 UTRAN nodes and links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515.3.2 RLC object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525.3.3 Error Model for DCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

    6 Delimitation 536.1 Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536.2 State-of-the-Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

    6.2.1 Works on E2E framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546.2.2 Works on mapping: SAMU project . . . . . . . . . . . . 546.2.3 Works on Policy: EVEREST project . . . . . . . . . . . . 556.2.4 Works on CAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556.2.5 Works on simulation: SEACORN project . . . . . . . . . 566.2.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

    6.3 Problem Delimitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

    2

  • CONTENTS

    7 Preliminary Simulation 587.1 Simulation including UTRAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

    7.1.1 Simulation settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587.1.2 Simulation result and conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

    7.2 Simulation on DiffServ wired network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607.2.1 Simulation topology and settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607.2.2 Simulation result and conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

    8 Proposed QoS Mechanism Algorithm 618.1 General Traffic model assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628.2 Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628.3 Call Admission Control(CAC) and Resource Reservation : . . . . 638.4 policing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 648.5 Scheduling and buffering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

    Bibliography 69

    3

  • List of Figures

    1.1 Entities involved in E2E UMTS QoS Provision . . . . . . . . . . 10

    2.1 UMTS Network Architecture in Release 99 . . . . . . . . . . . . 142.2 UMTS Radio Access Network(UTRAN) Architecture [8] . . . . . 152.3 UMTS Protocol Stack: User Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.4 UMTS Protocol Stack: Control Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.5 PDP Context State Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    3.1 UMTS End-to-End QoS Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263.2 PDP Context Activation Procedure for UMTS [11] . . . . . . . . 323.3 Secondary PDP Context Activation Procedure for UMTS [11] . . 333.4 GGSN-Initiated PDP Context Modification Procedure for UMTS

    [11] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343.5 UMTS QoS Management functions in the control plane[1] . . . . 343.6 UMTS QoS Management functions in the user plane[1] . . . . . . 36

    4.1 The DS field structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384.2 The architecture a DiffServ Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394.3 Assured Forwarding PHB Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404.4 Possible implementation of Expedited Forwarding PHB . . . . . . 404.5 Logical structure of a packet classifier and traffic conditioner . . . 424.6 An example TSW meter algorithm [17] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444.7 TSW3CM Marking Algorithm [17] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

    5.1 Simplified Userars view of NS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    7.1 E2E Network topology in using Best Effort strategy . . . . . . . . 587.2 Traffic throughput in a 10% overload scenario . . . . . . . . . . . 59

    8.1 Proposed Queuing Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658.2 PDP context process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

    4

  • List of Tables

    2.1 UTRAN Key Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

    3.1 UMTS QoS classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283.2 UMTS bearer attributes defined for each traffic class . . . . . . . 293.3 Valid Packet Filter Attribute Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

    7.1 Traffic Model Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

    8.1 Traffic Model Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628.2 UMTS Vs DiffServ Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

    5

  • Abbreviation List

    QoS Quality of ServiceUMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications SystemIP Internet Protocol3G Third-generation mobile telephone technology3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project3GPP2 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 ( the standardization group for CDMA2000)IETF Internet Engineering Task ForceUTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access NetworkUE User EquipmentRRM Radio Resource ManagementSGSN Serving GPRS Support NodesGGSN Gateway GPRS Support NodesITU International Telecommunication UnionIMT-2000 International Mobile Telecommunications 2000ETSI Europe European Telecommunications Standards InstituteSMS Short Message ServiceMMS Multimedia Messaging ServiceCN Core NetworkUTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access NetworkUE User EquipmentGSM Global System for Mobile CommunicationUSIM UMTS Subscriber Identity ModuleME Mobile EquipmentWCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple AccessCDMA Code Division Multiple AccessFDD Frequency Division DuplexTDD Time Division DuplexRNC Radio Network ControllerGPRS General Packet Radio ServiceMSC Mobile Switching CenterVLR Visitor Location Register

    6

  • ABBREVIATION LIST

    GMSC Gateway MSCEIR Equipment Identity RegisterHLR Home Location RegisterAuC Authentication CentreMAC Medium Access ControlRLC Radio Link ControlPDCP Packet Data Convergence ProtocolGTP-U GPRS Tunnelling Protocol for the user planeUDP User Datagram ProtocolRRC Radio Resource ControlRANAP Radio Access Network Application Protocol

    7

  • Chapter 1

    Introduction

    1.1 MotivationThere is a growing interest in the end-to-end Quality of Service(E2E QoS) pro-vision in both the standards for 3G mobile radio systems(in 3GPP/3GPP2) andfor IP infrastructure(in IETF), which reflects the trend that as the mobile Internet-like services get more and more popular, the market requires the real-time andquality-assured services provision by the mobile communication world which isgoing to be a convergence of all-IP backbone[3GPP Release 5] and UniversalMobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) radio access network.

    UMTS has been designed to support integrated services no matter voice, dat